out of their homes, especially in densely built-up areas.
This military strategy has been extremely effective in regaining most opposition strongholds at the expense of civilian suffering and humanitariancatastrophe. Moreover, this strategy, especially the forced displacement part, could have serious long-term consequences, such as forced displacement and demographic engineering, that could be almost impossible to reverse in post-conflict Syria.
All data used in this paper are publicly accessible. The authors declare that they have no