out of their homes, especially in densely built-up areas.
This military strategy has been extremely effective in regaining most opposition strongholds at the expense of civilian suffering and humanitariancatastrophe. Moreover, this strategy, especially the forced displacement part, could have serious long-term consequences, such as forced displacement and demographic engineering, that could be almost impossible to reverse in post-conflict Syria.
All data used in this paper are publicly accessible. The authors declare that they have no
‘uninstitutionalized, uncodified habits of streetlevel trust in the production of civic order’ (Scott 1999: 280). Forms of mitigation allow for a possible equalising of civil/military relations. Rather than
compliance, they signal social conflict and a rejection of militarisation and predation by state authorities.
As Tollens argues, it is due to the Congolese art of survival and their creative
strategies that, in the midst of one of the worst humanitariancatastrophes since
the Second World War, there has not been a declared famine (2004: 47). The