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Barbra Mann Wall

. They provided care, sustenance, help for orphans and protection of those suffering from the violence. Several authors have described the politics and humanitarianism of organisations that flew nightly shipments of food and medicines to a starving population in the southeast region during the war.2 As these accounts are told, the relief work was essentially a European and American enterprise. Yet examination of healthcare activities at the local level reveals both Irish Catholic missionaries and Nigerians themselves working collaboratively to care for the ill and

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
A history of colonial and post-colonial nursing
Editors: Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

Colonial Caring covers over a century of colonial nursing by nurses from a wide range of countries including: Denmark, Britain, USA, Holland and Italy; with the colonised countries including South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India, Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) and the Danish West Indies. It presents unique perspectives from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism including aspects of race, cultural difference and implications of warfare and politics upon nursing. Viewing nursing’s development under colonial and post-colonial rule reveals different faces of a profession that superficially may appear to be consistent and coherent, yet in reality is constantly reinventing itself. Considering such areas as transnational relationships, class, gender, race and politics, this book aims to present current work in progress within the field, to better understand the complex entanglements in nursing’s development as it was imagined and practised in local imperial, colonial and post-colonial contexts. Taking a chronologically-based structure, early chapters examine nursing in situations of conflict in the post-Crimean period from the Indian Rebellion to the Anglo-Boer War. Recruitment, professionalisation of nursing and of military nursing in particular, are therefore considered before moving deeper into the twentieth century reflecting upon later periods of colonialism in which religion and humanitarianism become more central. Drawing from a wide range of sources from official documents to diaries, memoirs and oral sources, and using a variety of methodologies including qualitative and quantitative approaches, the book represents ground-breaking work.

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Open Access (free)
Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing
Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

issues of race and ethnicity associated with segregation and ‘protection’. The discussions are then taken further into the twentieth century for the final third of the book, reflecting upon Italian colonialism in Ethiopia, guerrilla nursing in China by British and American nurses and Irish Catholic missionary doctors and nurses working in colonial and post-colonial Nigeria. In these chapters, religion and humanitarianism – as well as nursing in the face of stark inhumanity – become part of the equation, whilst relationships between colonised and colonisers is explored

in Colonial caring
William Muraskin

little weight against such a definitive act of humanitarianism. Indeed, to oppose such programmes must represent at best ignorance, and at worst an absolute evil. One of the great virologists of the twentieth century, Alfred Prince, co-discoverer of the hepatitis B virus and creator of one of the first inexpensive hepatitis B vaccines, who was also a social activist fighting for mass hepatitis B immunisation, was an interesting dissenter from

in The politics of vaccination
Guerrilla nursing with the Friends Ambulance Unit, 1946–48
Susan Armstrong-Reid

stories provides a different perspective, allowing us to focus on the ‘lives of unknown or lesser known figures so as to explore what their experiences can offer to our understanding of an era, a movement or a culture’.2 Their experiences illuminate the intersections of power with the matrix of faith, gender, class, race and place that shaped FAU nurses’ work as civil war spread like wildfire. Forced to renegotiate the fragile frontiers of its pacifist humanitarianism to maintain its organisational integrity, the Convoy became the only Western aid agency to gain access

in Colonial caring
Nonconformist religion in nineteenth-century pacifism
Heloise Brown

foundation, alongside these religious motives against war were the secular influences of liberalism and humanitarianism, which stemmed from the Enlightenment of the eighteenth century. Such arguments held that conflicts between states should be resolved without resorting to war, and that reason could replace violence. Although the original idea for such a society came from a nonQuaker dissenting minister, Dr David Bogue, the men who actually founded the Peace Society were Quakers: William Allen and Joseph Tregelles Price. However, a number of non-Quakers rallied to support

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
Open Access (free)
‘“United action” in Continental politics’
Heloise Brown

drew women into the public sphere within both the Meetings of the Society of Friends, and the Women’s Liberal Associations. As a result, she made questions of peace, humanitarianism and international arbitration more prominent within these organisations. On a number of occasions, Ellen Robinson argued that women’s moral influence enabled them to affect public opinion. In a speech in 1890, she argued that ‘Moral force is superceding [sic] physical force in family and social life, why not in international? Women as well as men are responsible for public opinion; it is

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
Trevor Burnard

–1804 (Cambridge, 2011) and D. Eltis, S. L. Engerman, S. Drescher, and D. Richardson (eds), The Cambridge World History of Slavery, vol. 4, AD 1804–2016 (Cambridge, 2017).   8 D. A. Blackmon, Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II (New York, 2008). Atlantic slave systems and violence 215   9 T. Snyder, The Power to Die: Slavery and Suicide in British North America (Chicago, 2015). 10 K. Halttunen, ‘Humanitarianism and the Pornography of Pain in Anglo-American Culture’, American Historical Review, 100:2 (1995); Z

in A global history of early modern violence
Open Access (free)
Violence and the early modern world
Erica Charters, Marie Houllemare, and Peter H. Wilson

Legal Thought: The Discourse of Conquest (Oxford, 1993). 33 R. Slotkin, Regeneration Through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 1600–1860 (Middletown, CT, 1973); P. Silver, Our Savage Neighbors: How Indian War Transformed Early America (New York, 2007); S. Schillings, Enemies of All Humankind: Fictions of Legitimate Violence (Hanover, NH, 2017). 34 A. Lester and F. Dussart, Colonization and the Origins of Humanitarian Governance (Cambridge, 2017); P. Edmonds and A. Johnston, ‘Empire, Humanitarianism and Violence in the Colonies’, Journal of

in A global history of early modern violence