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Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

authoritarian posturing towards allies and enemies alike now confirm the trend away from liberal internationalism that, despite cosmopolitan rhetoric, was already evident under the presidency of Barack Obama. This trend is not simply part of the secular fluctuation in American foreign policy between idealism and realism: its end is a rupture with the American exceptionalism essential to both traditions. The National Security Strategy of 2017 proposes that ‘the American way of life cannot be imposed upon others, nor is it the inevitable culmination of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Dominant approaches
M. Anne Brown

idealism and realism. The discussion of Lockean contractarianism is not an effort to explore the history of the emergence of rights practices or of notions of human rights, although reference is made to that history. Nor is the considerable body of multilateral practice on human rights, particularly United Nations and international legal practice, analysed in any detail. We commonly grasp human rights issues in terms of a series of deeply entrenched oppositions, most stridently between assertions of universal, or absolute, values and forms of

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
M. Anne Brown

characterised much of the first half of its century. The unquestionable dogma and idealism that characterised the first decades was in part rooted in widespread experience of this success. Party rule provided an effective (if slowly stagnating) subsistence economy underpinned by what was in the economic domain a relatively egalitarian value structure. The painful political education that was a by-product of the Cultural Revolution, however, ate away at the practice of unquestioning faith. Over subsequent years the ‘manipulation and mobilisation of the population to support

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Open Access (free)
M. Anne Brown

strategic point on a crucial deepsea shipping lane – the only lane in the area capable of providing safe access through the region to US submarines. Within Timor, the leading party was a nationalist, anti-colonialist and broadly socialist spectrum which contained, and was perhaps in 1975 increasingly dominated by, Marxist elements – moreover one which took a posture of non-negotiable idealism. Within the prevailing preoccupations of the Cold War, dominated by the strategic trajectories of the superpowers, and not too burdened by the local concerns of small players, this

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Open Access (free)
M. Anne Brown

underlying principles for policy orientations in particular fields to a search for deeper justification at the level of ultimate things. This second level of Linklater’s text, and the second way in which universalism figures in the text, thus refers to universal reason and a universal communication community, where ‘all individuals should be regarded as if they were co-legislators in a universal moral community’ (1998: 37). As with the patterns of idealism discussed in chapter 2 , a central role is given to theory as the transformative agent and vehicle of truth. This is

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

This section provides, in the style of a dictionary, details of the political careers of significant West European politicians, especially those who have been head of their country’s government or head of state.

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

development facilitate a way to justify a reality of war, poverty and impunity. As such, an obvious starting point from which to look for resistance is the idealism on which promises are made. These powerful promises seem to be enough to request the population to keep waiting, obeying, paying taxes, providing for themselves and facing repression in return for raising concerns. The implication is that peacebuilding’s discourse rests on people’s aspirations, and not the other way around. To this extent, peacebuilding is hardly Western or liberal, but is better seen as an

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making