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Open Access (free)
Brad Evans

ethical positioning that brings into question all forms of violence, most especially the legitimate violence constituted through the force of law. Denying the constituted embodiment of life, lawful violence is dehumanising. This in turn gives rise to claims about the universal rights of humans in international law and its associative laws of war. Violence is the Result of Underdevelopment Domesticated in the shadow of juridical power by the threat of incarceration, critics of the previous position might also point to our shared material gains and sense of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

time when Hitler used US race laws as a model for the Third Reich ( Whitman, 2017 ), or to slavery and genocide against Native Americans, or forward again to the use of mass incarceration by liberals in the US more recently ( Murakawa, 2014 ). We can add torture by the British government in Aden and Northern Ireland and more recently, as we well know, US torture in the ‘war on terror’. These are just the examples that come to mind. There are many more. Yet, having said all of that, it remains a core liberal belief that, broadly speaking

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Bert Ingelaere

collectivisation or individualisation of guilt. 9 Field observation, central Rwanda, 31 July 2007. 10 I provide such descriptions to clarify the nature of the interventions during trials. ‘Survivor’ refers to genocide survivors; ‘prisoners’ are individuals who were incarcerated at the time of the trial proceedings; ‘released prisoners’ had been in prison for alleged participation in the genocide but had been released before trial; those ‘accused in gacaca ’ are individuals accused of genocide crimes who had not been imprisoned at the time of the proceeding; and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Colin Craig

the hall of mirrors that is the War on Drugs. This oppressed group forms a natural constituency for libertarian socialists and anarchists of every hue; principled action against the War on Drugs might well help to galvanise these groups and their constituencies. The process of resistance has already begun in the United States where it is currently being led by the Drug Policy Alliance, an organisation that is supported by neoliberal backers. In that enormous nation, the sheer number of incarcerated Black and Hispanic people is now beginning to create the opportunity

in Changing anarchism
Sarah Hale

private prisons on the grounds that it is morally wrong for anyone to profit from people’s incarceration. A 1995 policy document unequivocally stated that the ‘Labour Party is opposed in principle to the privatisation of prisons . . . It is not appropriate for people to profit out of incarceration.’ 43 In government, however, this was outweighed by economic considerations, and

in The Third Way and beyond
Open Access (free)
Francisco E. González and Desmond King

in the 1935. But the 2001 terrorist attack is unlikely to garner any such divisions among Americans. The continuing narrative Democratization is a continuing process as the internal boundaries of American nationhood are challenged and redrawn in various ways, for instance by the Japanese American movement to win compensation for wartime incarceration, and by the United States’ international roles in defending liberal democracy against alternative ideologies and belief systems – what the political scientist Samuel Huntington calls the ‘clash of civilizations’ (1996

in Democratization through the looking-glass
M. Anne Brown

abuse of rights. Bodies such as Amnesty International, the World Council of Churches and the US State Department regularly comment on patterns of systemically imposed discrimination. Most notably, UN committees and treaty monitoring bodies have been increasingly expressing their concern with aspects of Indigenous life conditions, with the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (land rights and sentencing regimes), the UN Human Rights Commission and the Committee Against Torture (sentencing regimes and incarceration practices) registering disapproval

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

, ‘undesirable’ racial groups and whole social classes were subject to stereotyping, oppression, incarceration and extermination in line with ideological considerations. Common also to both fascist and communist movements was the hatred and contempt for liberal values and parliamentary democracy, which supposedly betrayed the nation or the class. The consequences for the international balance of power were very

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

inferior. Nevertheless British society does distribute rewards and penalties in a very unequal manner that results in most black and Asian people having higher levels of unemployment, lower incomes and greater overall poverty that their white neighbours. Black Britons have a higher rate of incarceration in prisons than white Britons and tend to serve longer sentences for the same offences. Legislation, from the Race Relations Act

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Jenny Edkins

marches. Often genocidal regimes will document their practices, strangely enough, by photographing those they incarcerate or kill as part of the bureaucracy of genocide. Such was the case in Pol Pot’s Cambodia and in Nazi Germany, for example. Even in liberal democracies, the mug shot has its function in recording suspects and criminals as well as controlling populations and their movements more generally through identity cards, passports and other documents. And when photography first became available it provided a means for administrators to record the features of

in Change and the politics of certainty