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Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Open Access (free)
Bonnie Evans

support the welfare and care of autistic individuals without forcing them into a wider framework of self-governance. The concept of autism has redefined how we think about individual rights and child rights. If there is another metamorphosis of autism on the horizon, it will be shaped in a very different political and legal climate to that which supported the first autism. The Mental Deficiency Act 1913 and

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)
Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume, and Christine Holmberg

need and that coverage should be viewed as a public good. 40 This position blunts accusations that major public health tools like vaccination and its companions ‘surveillance and containment’ are assaults on individual rights, a stance brought into prominence by AIDS activists in the 1980s; 41 these civil liberties concerns have reappeared in the face of counter-terror measures like ‘preparedness’. 42

in The politics of vaccination
Neil Macmaster

-independence state 375 past community that obscured elaboration of a clear ideology or political project, so acting to the detriment of universal and individual rights, a process in which women were the greatest losers.26 The dynamics of this failure can be most clearly traced through the post-independence blockage of reform of the marriage and family laws. The failure to carry out reform of the personal status law Some feminists have argued that to centre on legal reform and individual rights is to impose a western model that may obscure, as ‘declension narratives’ claim, the

in Burning the veil
Open Access (free)
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips, and Shurlee Swain

welcomed by settlers, who were keen to exercise their individual rights and to entrench their institutions; but it had serious consequences for Indigenous peoples. Their recognition of this danger often prompted appeals to the Crown to abide by British justice, forcing the British Government of the day to respond to their concerns independently of the local authorities. This increasing fragmentation of political power further

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Feminist journals and peace questions
Heloise Brown

who are denied the right to a voice in deciding whether it shall or shall not be laid upon them . . . [L]et the feminine plébiscite be appealed to as having a right to be heard, and who can doubt that the unanimous vote . . . from princess to peasant, would be given for peace between peoples and reunion in homes.16 In arguing that women would not vote for war, Becker used ideas of sexual difference – and to some extent, of class interest – to support her main argument about the importance of individual rights. These sexual difference debates echo the discussions in

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
Caroline Rusterholz

By referring to contraception as a ‘human right’, this constitution pinpointed the international dimension of this right, beyond the individual rights of Western citizens. It reflected the view that birth control had to become an international priority and that every human should consider birth control and plan their family accordingly. In addition, this rhetoric diluted the feminist perspective usually linked with birth control, in favour of a more ‘gender-neutral’ approach to family planning, where gender specificities were less visible. Framing birth control as

in Women’s medicine
Open Access (free)
Balancing the self in the twentieth century
Mark Jackson and Martin D. Moore

rejected at the time, other approaches – most notably increasing the price of alcohol – were put forward as ways to reduce drinking at the population level. At issue was not simply the capacity of individuals to achieve healthy balance. Policy-makers weighed potential for improved health outcomes alongside individual rights, the social equity of reforms, effects on industrial and employment fortunes, Treasury income and electoral considerations. A growing focus on moderation may have expanded public health's target population, but a reliance on health education and ill

in Balancing the self
The origins and endurance of club regulation
Duncan Wilson

test affirmed that ‘the underlying trend in the English courts was that “doctor knows best”’.101 While philosophers took a similarly ‘hands-off’ stance, they did so for different reasons. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, work on ethics had formed a major component of philosophy. British philosophers such as David Hume, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill claimed that acts should be guided by notions of sympathy, natural or individual rights and the utilitarian faith in increasing the happiness of the greatest number of people; and some of these ideas

in The making of British bioethics
Open Access (free)
Perceiving, describing and modelling child development
Bonnie Evans

-specific’ legislation to be passed in the UK, demonstrating the significance of the autism diagnosis to reframing approaches to mental health care, social welfare provision and individual rights in the UK. In 2013, EU Aims, a major initiative to develop new treatments for autism, received the largest grant for any mental health problem in the whole of Europe, revealing the cultural capital and potential for revenue

in The metamorphosis of autism