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Open Access (free)
Simona Giordano

considered – and many ideas about regulation that we have not explored. But we hope that it will provide a method of cultural exchange, give some interesting perspectives and stimulate further debates on issues relating to science, freedom of research and individual rights and responsibilities. Notes 1 www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights (last accessed 26 October 2017). 2 www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CESCR.aspx (last accessed 26 October 2017). 3 www.europarl.europa.eu/charter/pdf/text_en.pdf (last accessed 26 October 2017). 4 www

in The freedom of scientific research
Open Access (free)
Simona Giordano, John Harris, and Lucio Piccirillo

of societal benefit is a form of harm, then arguably certain political norms and regulatory constraints are harmful; and if society is not an abstract entity but a sum of individuals, then societal harm, or loss of societal benefits, is not to be understood as abstract harm to an ideal entity, but as tangible harm to real individuals. Scientific research is often perceived as a threat; medical sciences illustrate vividly the tension between the goals of scientific research and the long-term interests of society, on the one hand, and individual rights on the other

in The freedom of scientific research
The dualist and complex role of the state in Spanish labour and employment relations in an age of ‘flexibility’
Miguel Martínez Lucio

features of the state seemed limited to a short-term and deferential approach to finance capital and to the informal practices of employers (Banyuls and Recio, 2009). The state was also relatively inegalitarian in terms of labour market policies and inclusiveness for a long period of time – committed to a highly gendered and hierarchically paternalist view of work and the role of women (Lopez and Santos del Cerro, 2013). Yet the first decade or so of the post-Francoist years saw the development of a system of formal collective and individual rights which underpinned

in Making work more equal
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

the person directly affected, but against all civilized States. His conclusion is that under these circumstances collective intervention is ‘obligatory’. 50 Bluntschli of Heidelberg University asserted that ‘[t]he civilized nations in particular are called upon to develop the sentiment of the common laws of humanity’ 51 and that ‘[o]ne is authorized to intervene to ensure respect for the individual rights recognized

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
The quest for the right to science
Marco Cappato

recognise the competence of the Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) to consider complaints from individuals. The committee consists of eighteen independent human rights experts that meet three times a year at the United Nations. The ICESCR is the twin of the ICCPR, and was the result of a diplomatic compromise to satisfy the ideological approaches of the two main blocs during the Cold War – individual rights were considered crucial for the West, collective ones for the USSR and its allies. With the fall of the Soviet Union, this separation has blurred

in The freedom of scientific research
Open Access (free)
The discovery, commemoration and reinterment of eleven Alsatian victims of Nazi terror, 1947– 52
Devlin M. Scofield

, 266. 46 See Farmer, Martyred Village, especially ch. 5, ‘The Bordeaux trial’. 47 L.  D. Clay, Decision in Germany (Garden City, NY:  Doubleday & Company, 1950), pp. 421, 436. The Basic Law established a democratic government with an independent judiciary system and guaranteed individual rights and freedoms. 48 Ibid., p.  428. An Occupation Statute governed the authority of the Commission. Clay records that ‘It [the Occupation Statute] conveyed full legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the federal state and the participating states except in the fields of

in Human remains in society
Australia, France and Sweden compared
Dominique Anxo, Marian Baird, and Christine Erhel

universalism, egalitarianism and individual rights. The Swedish model is also founded on a strong political commitment to the goal of full employment. Sweden stands out as providing one type of societal system based on high employment rates, with only a small gender gap; a high incidence of dual-earner households; extensive and generous family policies; strong welfare support systems for childcare, parental leave and elderly care; and egalitarian wage structures, including relatively low gender wage inequality. Furthermore, the overall political context, which is

in Making work more equal
Cameron Ross

citizens in a democracy-to-be . . . have no doubt or mental reservations as to which political community they belong to . . . [and] the people cannot decide until someone decides who are the people’.53 A further problem in multinational states, as Smith notes, ‘is how to counter domination by either nationalist-minded minorities or the majority national group’. One answer for those who advocate a liberal federation ‘is to prioritise the individual rights of citizens regardless of their ethnic or national affiliation’.54 For as O’Donnell rightly observes: ‘Citizenship can

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia