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), set out with the bold aim of transforming the intellectual culture of Britain, which they viewed as a pre-requisite of any real socialist advance, by introducing and applying Marxist thought drawn mainly from continental Europe. The Nairn–Anderson theses thus represented an ambitious attempt to pioneer a distinctive analysis of British capitalist development, its state, society and class structure. Despite a number of shortcomings, some justly identified by E. P. Thompson in his excoriating and famous 1965 attack, what was distinctive and valuable about the Nairn

in Interpreting the Labour Party
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-clerical religion, which appealed to human reason alone, and substituted for the mystical, conservative and hierarchical ethos of the Church the Enlightenment values of individualism, egalitarianism and rationalism. On this view, progress was identified with the progressive emancipation of human reason from its shackles: ignorance primarily, but also ancestral traditions and unexamined beliefs. As the republican leader Léon Gambetta put it, ‘we only have one religion, namely, intellectual culture for all the French’.20 Only autonomous individuals could be enlightened citizens

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
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-​ḥukm: baḥth fi’l-​khilāfa wa’l-​ḥukūma fi’l-​Islām (Cairo: Maṭbaʿat Miṣr, 1925). English translation: Ali Abdel Razek, Islam and the Foundations of Political Power (Maryam Loutfi trans. and Abdou Filali-​Ansary, ed.) (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012). 43 Muḥammad Rashīd Riḍā, Al-​ Khilāfa aw al-​Imāma al-​ʿUẓma (Cairo: al-​Zahrāʾ li’l-​ iʿlām al-​ʿarabī, [1922] 1988). 44 Paul Brykczynski, ‘Radical Islam and the Nation: The Relationship Between Religion and Nationalism in the Political Thought of Hassan al-​Banna and Sayyid Qutb’, History of Intellectual Culture

in Houses built on sand