), set out with the bold aim of transforming the
intellectualculture of Britain, which they viewed as a pre-requisite of any real
socialist advance, by introducing and applying Marxist thought drawn mainly
from continental Europe. The Nairn–Anderson theses thus represented an ambitious attempt to pioneer a distinctive analysis of British capitalist development, its
state, society and class structure.
Despite a number of shortcomings, some justly identified by E. P. Thompson in
his excoriating and famous 1965 attack, what was distinctive and valuable about
which appealed to human reason alone, and substituted for the mystical,
conservative and hierarchical ethos of the Church the Enlightenment values
of individualism, egalitarianism and rationalism. On this view, progress was
identified with the progressive emancipation of human reason from its
shackles: ignorance primarily, but also ancestral traditions and unexamined
beliefs. As the republican leader Léon Gambetta put it, ‘we only have one
religion, namely, intellectualculture for all the French’.20 Only autonomous
individuals could be enlightened citizens
-ḥukm: baḥth fi’l-khilāfa wa’l-ḥukūma fi’l-Islām
(Cairo: Maṭbaʿat Miṣr, 1925). English translation: Ali Abdel Razek, Islam and the
Foundations of Political Power (Maryam Loutfi trans. and Abdou Filali-Ansary, ed.)
(Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012).
43 Muḥammad Rashīd Riḍā, Al- Khilāfa aw al-Imāma al-ʿUẓma (Cairo: al-Zahrāʾ li’l-
iʿlām al-ʿarabī,  1988).
44 Paul Brykczynski, ‘Radical Islam and the Nation: The Relationship Between Religion
and Nationalism in the Political Thought of Hassan al-Banna and Sayyid Qutb’, History