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Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.

Contesting the meaning of the 2015 refugee crisis in Sweden
Admir Skodo

claim that events happen randomly or spontaneously. There are, however, different conceptions of whether events can be explained by individuals’ actions, by economic and material conditions, by the intellectual development of societies, or by repeating patterns of change – or perhaps by all these forces, and more. The concept of event and series of events can in other words be interpreted differently and we have interpreted the events according to the descriptions in our [government] directive. It is clear that the directive does not emphasize an examination of the

in Refugees and the violence of welfare bureaucracies in Northern Europe
Acceptance, critique and the bigger picture
Anne B. Ryan

the system cannot continue indefinitely, because it depends on and is depleting natural and finite resources, such as oil and gas. It also has personal, psychological and social consequences which many people consider unacceptable. Effects on spiritual and intellectual development Many – especially older – people often wonder why some people are unhappy in their lifestyles and paid work. They are not prepared to shed too many tears for a high-earning younger generation whose main problems seem to be time poverty and job stress. However, growth economics has had

in The end of Irish history?