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Coreen Anne McGuire

Nevertheless, such technical developments were incorporated into otology alongside techniques for testing transmission quality pioneered by the British Broadcasting Company (the BBC). 54 For the MRC, the audiometer offered a way to ‘merge clinical research with scientific efficiency’, and it became central to their interwar hearing committee’s projects on normal hearing and its potential restoration. 55 The audiometer was also critical to the interwar commitments of deaf educators and especially fuelled the legitimacy of the commitment to oralism, an educational method

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Open Access (free)
Duncan Wilson

and medicine publicly accountable. But they also claimed 16 The making of British bioethics that it would benefit scientists and doctors by maintaining public confidence and freeing them from having to make difficult moral choices. Rather than simply challenging or protecting the authority of scientists and doctors, then, British bioethicists presented them with a new means of legitimacy in a changed political climate. Their arguments ensured that many senior doctors endorsed bioethics and supported the appointment of bioethicists to professional organisations

in The making of British bioethics
Elisha P. Renne

such as measles and poliomyelitis. 3 Vaccination campaigns thus rely on the political authority and police power of the state to carry out public health programmes for the benefit of its citizens. The success of these programmes, in turn, may bolster the legitimacy of state control of its citizenry – through lower infant and child morbidity and mortality rates that increase its credibility – and foster a sense of national

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Health as moral economy in the long nineteenth century
Christopher Hamlin

complaint – bread rioters were complaining unambiguously about unacceptable prices. To complain, however, requires many things: recognition of suffering, the energy and capacity to express it, and perhaps the presumption of social sanction for the complaint's legitimacy. For we must not mistake complaint for power. Along with the question of who can complain is the question of what they can complain about and to whom. Here I shall use ‘complaint’ and ‘annoyance’ as the terms traders use in the moral economy of medicine – they express conditions crowds

in Progress and pathology
Open Access (free)
Duncan Wilson

into science and medicine and appeared to limit the scope for ‘official bioethics’.61 This was made clear in a recent Commission on Assisted Dying, which by was established not by the government but by the entrepreneur Jonathan Lewis and the author Terry Pratchett. To retain their policy influence, bioethicists 264 The making of British bioethics will have to accommodate these changing structures. And if future commissions or inquiries are no longer state-supported, bioethicists will have to ask questions about their legitimacy and possible bias – especially

in The making of British bioethics
Open Access (free)
Balancing the self in the twentieth century
Mark Jackson and Martin D. Moore

the Second World War, to a period of global crisis and collapse between 1973 and 1991. On the other hand, the twentieth century was characterised by a tendency to classify people, practices, and political systems in simple binary terms, an approach to knowledge and experience that had first gained legitimacy during the Enlightenment. Contrasts were established between seemingly oppositional categories such as: reason and emotion; sanity and insanity; self and other; normal and pathological; capitalist and communist; public and private; female and male; creativity

in Balancing the self
Ian Kennedy, oversight and accountability in the 1980s
Duncan Wilson

profession, then, Kennedy presented it with a new means of legitimacy in a changed political climate. This ensured that many senior figures endorsed his proposals and Kennedy was soon ‘embraced by much of established medicine’.9 We can thus appreciate the growth of bioethics in the 1980s by seeing figures such as Kennedy as crucial intermediaries between politicians and doctors, who promised to fulfil the neo-liberal demand for oversight while also safeguarding medicine. From paternalism to patient empowerment Ian McColl Kennedy was born in the West Midlands on 14

in The making of British bioethics
Bonnie Evans

circumscribed group of child cases. Kanner’s legitimacy as a writer stemmed from his pivotal place in the newly developing field of child psychiatry, as writer of the first English-language textbook on the subject. Kanner’s 1943 work has received much attention within popular understanding of the history of autism research. 75 However, his work was not widely accepted at the time and

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)
Gareth Millward

step of publishing Wakefield and Montgomery's article alongside the peer review reports, emphasising the journal's support for freedom of scientific expression, but also its reservations about the legitimacy of Wakefield and Montgomery's conclusions. 73 Still, given the lack of information on autism and the Japanese withdrawal of the vaccine, the possibility of MMR being dangerous remained plausible. The British government said that it wanted to protect the nation from infectious disease – but was it capable of doing so? For the public this was

in Vaccinating Britain
Martin D. Moore

specialists in other fields. 77 As noted above, specialists had been central to the production of earlier guidance on diabetes care, but the resulting documents derived legitimacy from the statutory powers of the CHSC and the Ministry of Health. Similarly, whilst the Royal Colleges had played historic roles in maintaining professional standards, they had hitherto pursued their aims through certification, education, and their influence over policy committees and NHS bodies. 78 The 1977 guidance, therefore, represented diabetes specialists’ adoption of more formal

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine