harmonious community experience between peers, fellow workers and their families – not to mention the oppressive relations with those who are unequal, because these are ubiquitous. In the extreme and tragic case of drought driving away the people of the land, the social fabric becomes frayed. In the Brazilian reality, it is worth repeating that the routes to migration have been multiple. There are many migrants who have managed to overcome hardships and challenges and redefine their crossing over as liberation. Lula, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, was a migrant who became
’ in its role of
safeguarding ‘private interests and the liberation of private energies’ (Gamble,
1994: 72-3). The webs of power surrounding and suffusing industrialisation
are revealed to produce the ‘individual’ as the central actor in social change.
The cotton industry appeared to require little in the way of state coordination, enabling small-scale private entrepreneurs to ‘launch themselves’
into an international marketplace (Gerschenkron, 1962; Hobsbawm, 1975).
The cotton industry was launched, like a glider, by the pull of the colonial
trade to which it was