Open Access (free)
Kitty S. Millet

This article has two aims: to examine the effects of victim proximity to crematoria ashes and ash pits both consciously and unconsciously in a subset of Holocaust survivors, those who were incarcerated at the dedicated death camps of Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, as well as Auschwitz-Birkenau; and to contrast these effects, the subject positions they produce, with their suppression as the basis both for a strategy of survival during incarceration and for a reimagined identity after the war. Within a cohort of four survivors from Rudolf Reder (Belzec), Esther Raab (Sobibor), Jacob Wiernik (Treblinka) and Shlomo Venezia (Auschwitz), I trace the ways in which discrete memories and senses became constitutive in the formation of the subject prior to and after escape – the experience of liberation – so that essentially two kinds of subjects became visible, the subject in liberation and the subject of ashes. In conjunction with these two kinds of subjects, I introduce the compensatory notion of a third path suggested both by H. G. Adler and Anna Orenstein, also Holocaust survivors, that holds both positions together in one space, the space of literature, preventing the two positions from being stranded in dialectical opposition to each other.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Joachim Neander

During the Second World War and its aftermath, the legend was spread that the Germans turned the bodies of Holocaust victims into soap stamped with the initials RIF, falsely interpreted as made from pure Jewish fat. In the years following liberation, RIF soap was solemnly buried in cemeteries all over the world and came to symbolise the six million killed in the Shoah, publicly showing the determination of Jewry to never forget the victims. This article will examine the funerals that started in Bulgaria and then attracted several thousand mourners in Brazil and Romania, attended by prominent public personalities and receiving widespread media coverage at home and abroad. In 1990 Yad Vashem laid the Jewish soap legend to rest, and today tombstones over soap graves are falling into decay with new ones avoiding the word soap. RIF soap, however, is alive in the virtual world of the Internet and remains fiercely disputed between believers and deniers.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
The failure of history
Neil Macmaster

Algerian women, along with communist and progressive Catholic activists, began to challenge this conservative block during the turbulent phase of nationalism between the Liberation and 1954. But the outbreak of the War of Independence marked a radical shift in two respects: firstly, the emerging women’s organisations were rapidly dissolved and merged under the unitary umbrella of the authoritarian FLN. The most widely shared socialist M1822 - MACMASTER TEXT.indd 394 21/7/09 12:16:33 Conclusion 395 and liberal internationalist perception of Algerian women at war, one

in Burning the veil
Open Access (free)
Neil Macmaster

informers and local populations in general,7 and women in particular. One anonymous general told the journalist Jacques Perrier, ‘Algerian women constitute a third force between us and the Front de libération nationale (FLN). When, in certain regions that are infested with rebels, the women come over to our side then pacification is not far off’.8 In this drive to bring Algerian women on side, the military had come to share one of the key ideological beliefs of Algerian nationalism, the view that women and the family constituted the last remaining bastion of religious

in Burning the veil
Neil Macmaster

not constitute a significant issue: the immediate life-and-death business of waging war and of national survival was thought to be far too urgent a matter to allow energies to be diverted in this direction and women’s equality it was thought would be almost automatically achieved through independence and liberation from colonialism.1 However, the FLN was forced during the course of the war to take a position on women for two reasons: firstly, women gradually assumed a de facto role in the conflict, playing a major part in urban networks and the maquis as gun and

in Burning the veil
Open Access (free)
Liberation, remembering and forgetting
James E. Connolly

283 v 9 v Epilogue: Liberation, remembering and forgetting Liberation From August to November 1918, the war of movement recommenced as the Allies pushed back the Germans across the Western Front during the Hundred Days offensive. For the occupied Nord, the end of German domination drew ever closer, but so too did the perils of combat. The notes of Lille’s Municipal Council for September–​October 1918 record increasingly frequent instances of direct fire from Allied artillery, German anti-​aircraft shells falling back to earth, or bombs dropped by Allied planes

in The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914– 18
Neil Macmaster

and sons, or who attended trials and provided mutual support in the face of execution orders. From this solidarity of women, most of whom were veiled, illiterate and had previously rarely left the confines of the home, emerged a movement that demanded improved prison conditions and visiting rights, and that on occasion resulted in full-scale riots outside the prison gates.20 The mobilisation of women during the final stages of the war was in particular a revolt of teenage girls and young married women. Historically, independence or liberation movements, from the

in Burning the veil
Open Access (free)
James E. Connolly

all classes of society[?]’29 Thus, reports of sexual misconduct reflected both a complex reality and a wider culture of judgement rather than a simply middle-​class one, although the centrality of respectability was more associated with bourgeois norms. v 41 v 42 The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914–18 Liberation investigations Documents remain of post-​ liberation investigations into ‘suspect’ women carried out in a small section of the Nord (effectively Lille’s metropolitan area) by French gendarmes primarily attached to the British army.30 These

in The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914– 18
Open Access (free)
James E. Connolly

96 v 3 v Male misconduct Men suspected of misconduct were often high-​profile individuals in positions of authority. Municipal, administrative forms of misconduct –​ roughly analogous to what Nivet calls ‘political collaboration’1  –​ were taken seriously by the French authorities after the liberation. Members of the Gendarmerie Nationale and the Commissariat Spécial of Lille carried out time-​consuming investigations up to the end of 1919. All but two of these involved accusations of questionable occupation conduct on the part of the Mayor, the Municipal

in The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914– 18
James E. Connolly

its notions of good and bad behaviour. Instances of named denunciators in repatriation and post-​liberation reports regarding the Nord are actually rather infrequent:  fourteen women among those subject to the immediate post-​liberation investigations were linked to denunciations, although for others denunciation was often implied.16 Sixty-​six women, twenty-​five men and one family were signalled as possible denunciators or ‘indicators’ in the Évian testimony examined.17 British intelligence files relate eight suspected female denunciators, three male, and one

in The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914– 18