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Open Access (free)
Kitty S. Millet

This article has two aims: to examine the effects of victim proximity to crematoria ashes and ash pits both consciously and unconsciously in a subset of Holocaust survivors, those who were incarcerated at the dedicated death camps of Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, as well as Auschwitz-Birkenau; and to contrast these effects, the subject positions they produce, with their suppression as the basis both for a strategy of survival during incarceration and for a reimagined identity after the war. Within a cohort of four survivors from Rudolf Reder (Belzec), Esther Raab (Sobibor), Jacob Wiernik (Treblinka) and Shlomo Venezia (Auschwitz), I trace the ways in which discrete memories and senses became constitutive in the formation of the subject prior to and after escape – the experience of liberation – so that essentially two kinds of subjects became visible, the subject in liberation and the subject of ashes. In conjunction with these two kinds of subjects, I introduce the compensatory notion of a third path suggested both by H. G. Adler and Anna Orenstein, also Holocaust survivors, that holds both positions together in one space, the space of literature, preventing the two positions from being stranded in dialectical opposition to each other.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Joachim Neander

During the Second World War and its aftermath, the legend was spread that the Germans turned the bodies of Holocaust victims into soap stamped with the initials RIF, falsely interpreted as made from pure Jewish fat. In the years following liberation, RIF soap was solemnly buried in cemeteries all over the world and came to symbolise the six million killed in the Shoah, publicly showing the determination of Jewry to never forget the victims. This article will examine the funerals that started in Bulgaria and then attracted several thousand mourners in Brazil and Romania, attended by prominent public personalities and receiving widespread media coverage at home and abroad. In 1990 Yad Vashem laid the Jewish soap legend to rest, and today tombstones over soap graves are falling into decay with new ones avoiding the word soap. RIF soap, however, is alive in the virtual world of the Internet and remains fiercely disputed between believers and deniers.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Perspectives on civilisation in Latin America
Jeremy C.A. Smith

 counter-​imagination contextualises Americanism and is common to modernist traditions and subsequent traditions of radical critique and activism. Second, I delineate modernist movements in philosophy, literature and poetry and the arts that made such modernist traditions. They flourished in the first part of the twentieth century. However, after the Second World War, modernism found radical expression in Latin American Marxism, political economy, liberation theology and indigenous social movements. Overall, I contend that modern Latin America has emerged from the cross-​currents, conflicts and

in Debating civilisations
South Africa in the post-imperial metropole
Laura Chrisman

Englishness – make a significant if generally neglected archive for cultural sociology. It is a crucial irony that the aspects of South Africa that are most threatening for metropolitan subject constitution are also their greatest potential selling points: these are the contemporary movement for political emancipation and the historical relationship between the two countries. My first section addresses the impact of the contemporary liberation movement; I then go on to explore the historical relationship. The metropolitan commodification of anti-racist political movement

in Postcolonial contraventions
The afterlives of human remains at the Bełzec extermination camp
Zuzanna Dziuban

reaffirm this assumption. I quote sparingly: ‘after the liberation local inhabitants and people from Bełzec’s surroundings came here to find the gold. This activity expanded greatly’;23 ‘half of [our city] was searching there’;24 ‘I used to go there as well, just like the majority of my acquaintances’.25 According to a local policeman, after the camp was liquidated ‘[local people] dug out single corpses, or sometimes mass graves containing several people … They looked for golden teeth in the jaws’.26 Moreover, many statements gathered during and after the Bełzec probe

in Human remains in society
Open Access (free)
Antonia Lucia Dawes

The concluding chapter returns to Glissant’s reflections about language to think about how multilingualism can be configured as a provisional politics of liberation from racialised power and domination. It examines the humorous and resilient aspects of multilingual edginess that took place throughout the research as a way to think what that politics looks like on the ground. It argues that, both in its everyday manifestations and as part of organised social movements, edginess is the entrenched, counterpoetical and multilingual response to racism as a scavenger ideology that might rise and then be beaten back, only to reappear in another location, and at another moment, as its persistent shadow.

in Race talk
David Deutsch

Proper burial, according to Jewish tradition, is one of the most esteemed, important and respected traditions; it is considered to be the only "Mitzva", that is, more important than the study of the Torah. Due to the extent of the corpses, human remains, ashes and mass graves in post-Holocaust European, rabbinic authorities therefore increasingly faced the issue of how to deal with their appropriate commemoration following WWII liberation.

One of the most common questions in rabbinical discourse was the question of post-war reburial from mass graves to provide proper burial for each of the deceased individuals. Later rabbinic writing provides a more systematic approach to the reality of post-war reburial of mass graves, dealing with the fact that many of the bodies were incinerated and oftentimes the only things present were hair, teeth, bones, dirt and ashes. In many of the rabbinical deliberations a complex process of ruling is evident forcing the rabbis to base their final ruling on earlier Talmudic citations rather than later responsas.

Due to the lack of academic literature the field, this chapter will provide a descriptive presentation of various rabbinical responsas to the vast amount of Jewish human remains after the Holocaust, exploring the themes, language, context, historical background and approach.

in Human remains in society
Critique and utopia in Benita Parry’s thought
Laura Chrisman

). Parry’s concern with socialist eurovision has intensified since then, as is evident in her forthcoming article ‘Liberation Theory: Variations on Themes of Marxism and Modernity’. But if in 1987 she was content merely to identify a problem, now we find she is concerned to analyse the problem of the left’s non-engagement with colonialism, locating as crucial the ‘shift away from the political’ in European Marxism that began in the 1930s. However, Parry’s politics of hope and her analytic rigour prevent her from blanket denunciation. She gets at the problem of European

in Postcolonial contraventions
Open Access (free)
Paul Gilroy’s The Black Atlantic
Laura Chrisman

America with the Caribbean and Latin America; with proletarian and socialist US cultures; with Third-World liberationist thought. And a way to counter the problematic racial purism of Afrocentrism might be to emphasise and explore the significance of mixed-race intellectuals and their cultural texts. My other reservation about Gilroy’s exclusive focus on Europe as space of liberation for New World blacks is that it overlooks entirely the experience of Europe as historically, and structurally, oppressive for blacks from colonies – so well charted, for instance, in the

in Postcolonial contraventions
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

par with Kant (democracies are peaceful at the inter-state level) and, as with Cobden, as one of the pioneers of liberal internationalism. 86 As did both Cobden and J. S. Mill, Mazzini maintained that foreign intervention was not warranted in domestic political struggles for democratic rule and national liberation. But certain factors made him temper his views and part ways with Cobden, bringing him much closer to Mill (see below), with whom he was

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century