adjust to a normal way of living. Some hid their food in
their lockers … in case … [ellipses in the original] some wept uncontrollably at times and some wanted to stand to attention if spoken to … We
let the patients do their own thing … We had no routine, treated them as
gently as possible and accepted some eccentricities.21
Other nurses were posted to care for the liberated civilian inmates
of Nazi concentration camps. It is the experiences of nurses who
were part of the liberation and later rehabilitation of the inmates at
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp that
Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing
Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins
with the national liberation movements of the 1960s. As it can be
construed as covering such a long period of time, colonialism has
been divided into several, somewhat arbitrary phases, and Colonial
Caring will focus on the later phase, commonly recognised as ‘the
modern European colonial project’ or ‘period of New Imperialism’.
According to Margaret Kohn, this phase was born of and sustained
by the developments in transport and communications in the nineteenth century, through which ‘it became possible to move large
numbers of people across the ocean and to maintain
The hygienic utopia in Jules Verne, Camille Flammarion, and William
pain are completely unknown. Everything [on Mars] is more heavenly, more ethereal, more immaterial’.
But the release from the body comes at a price. The Martians’ nervous systems are so advanced that they are compared with electrical appliances,
and their most sensual impressions are experienced ‘more by the soul rather than by the body’.
They live without passion: their liberation from ‘the crudeness of
Mary Warnock, embryos and moral expertise 145
extending their prior work on acts and omissions and the moral
implications of violence and killing. Singer looked at animal experiments in essays and in his book Animal Liberation, in which he drew
on civil rights campaigns to propose that ‘we extend to other species
the basic principle of equality that most of us recognise should be
extended to members of our own species’.33 After claiming that
harming animals on account of their presumed inferiority was a
form of discrimination known as ‘speciesism
were blamed on the production process rather than on
the drug itself.134 It was not until 1945 that a paper appeared in
the British Medical Journal informing readers of the possibility of
allergic reactions, warning that ‘it is understood that the above is the
only occurrence of a reaction of this type [eczema and discharge]
to penicillin therapy in more than 30,000 cases treated in the B.L.A.
[British Liberation Army]’.135 Despite such ardent confidence in
the marvel of penicillin, in its very early days there were some
substantial problems. Florey and his team
–13 June 1942).
154 Harrison, Medicine and Victory, 98.
155 Khan, ‘Sex in an imperial war zone’, 250.
156 Noakes, Women in the British Army, 35.
157 Fletcher, ‘Sisters behind the wire’, 420.
158 Summers, Angels and Citizens, 159.
159 Joanne Reilly, ‘Cleaner, carer, and occasional dance partner? Writing
women back into the liberation of Bergen-Belsen’, in Jo Reilly, David
Cesarani, Tony Kushner and Colin Richmond (eds), Belsen in History and
Memory (London: Frank Cass, 1997), 156. Reilly in particular decries the
‘glib’ use of the word ‘sacrifice’, intoned in a
. In the 1960s, however, ‘the institutional structures of cultural traditionalism started to crumble’,
thanks to the Lady Chatterley trial and the ending of moral censorship, the legalisation of abortion and homosexuality, the facilitation
of easier divorce, the emergence of the women’s liberation movement, the loss of domestic ideologies in youth culture and growing
rebellion against traditional sources of authority.55 Attendance at
Protestant churches, Sunday schools and religious rites of passage
The making of British bioethics
fell away dramatically, and a