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universalism (to which they are not necessarily opposed) can be embodied in market relations, because markets treat everyone the same. Conversely, some on the Left have been critical of universalism in theory, but not necessarily in practice. They allege that universalism has either neglected or even suppressed a spectrum of social identities, categorical boundaries and cultural boundaries by implicitly treating white, heterosexual, able-bodied men as the normative ideal (Butler, 1990). This does not mean that universal services should be abandoned, merely that universality

in After the new social democracy
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Some key issues in understanding its competitive production and regulation

the market. Product differentiation implies the construction of transparent market relations around specific sets of quality definitions that are shared by all parties involved, and are sufficiently translated to convince consumers to pay premium prices. When looking at the empirical variety of SFSCs, two main categories of quality definitions may be distinguished, as shown in figure 6.2. The first category of SFSCs stresses mainly the link between quality attributes of the product and its place of production or producer. Specific characteristics of the place of

in Qualities of food
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Purchasing, consumption and innovation

. Organisations which see themselves as driven by ‘demand’ cannot build environmental objectives into their R&D projects until they perceive them as customer requirements. However, such environmental demands may come up in supplier–customer dialogue only when it is a key performance issue rather than as a matter of course. Conventional market relations between seller and buyer do not of themselves routinely provide a clear channel for environmental signals from ‘the customer’ to product innovation. There is, however, a complex relationship between signals being received

in Innovation by demand