universalism (to which
they are not necessarily opposed) can be embodied in marketrelations,
because markets treat everyone the same. Conversely, some on the Left
have been critical of universalism in theory, but not necessarily in
practice. They allege that universalism has either neglected or even
suppressed a spectrum of social identities, categorical boundaries and cultural boundaries by implicitly treating white, heterosexual, able-bodied
men as the normative ideal (Butler, 1990). This does not mean that universal services should be abandoned, merely that universality
Some key issues in understanding its competitive production and regulation
the market. Product differentiation implies the construction of transparent marketrelations around specific sets of quality definitions that are shared by all parties involved, and are sufficiently translated
to convince consumers to pay premium prices. When looking at the empirical variety of SFSCs, two main categories of quality definitions may be distinguished, as shown in figure 6.2.
The first category of SFSCs stresses mainly the link between quality attributes of the product and its place of production or producer. Specific characteristics of the place of
. Organisations which
see themselves as driven by ‘demand’ cannot build environmental objectives
into their R&D projects until they perceive them as customer requirements.
However, such environmental demands may come up in supplier–customer
dialogue only when it is a key performance issue rather than as a matter of
course. Conventional marketrelations between seller and buyer do not of
themselves routinely provide a clear channel for environmental signals from
‘the customer’ to product innovation.
There is, however, a complex relationship between signals being received