Timothy Longman

: Cornell University Press ). Guichaoua , A. ( 2005 ), Rwanda 1994: Les Politiques du Génocide à Butare ( Paris : Karthala ). Guichaoua , A. ( 2015 ), From War to Genocide: Criminal Politics in Rwanda 1990–1994 ( Madison : University of Wisconsin Press ). Kimonyo , J-P. ( 2016 ), Rwanda’s Popular Genocide: A Perfect Storm ( Boulder, CO : Lynne Rienner ). Lemarchand , R. ( [2013] 2018 ), ‘ Rwanda: The State of Research’ , originally published May 27, 2013, revised edition published 25 June 2018. www.sciencespo.fr/mass-violence

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Bert Ingelaere

, S. and Vandeginste , S. (eds), L’Afrique des Grands Lacs, Annuaire 2010–2011 ( Paris : L’Harmattan ), pp. 303 – 18 . Ingelaere , B. ( 2011b ), ‘The ruler’s drum and the people’s shout: Accountability and representation on Rwanda’s hills’ , in Straus , S. and Waldorf , L. (eds), Remaking Rwanda: State Building and Human Rights after Mass Violence ( Madison : University of Wisconsin Press ), pp. 67 – 78 . Ingelaere , B. ( 2012 ), ‘From Model to Practice: Researching and Representing Rwanda’s “Modernized” Gacaca Courts’ , Critique of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Antonius C. G. M. Robben

Thousands of people died in Rotterdam during the Second World War in more than 300 German and Allied bombardments. Civil defence measures had been taken before the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940 and these efforts were intensified during the country’s occupation as Allied bombers attacked Rotterdam’s port, factories, dry docks and oil terminals. Residential neighbourhoods were also hit through imprecise targeting and by misfired flak grenades. Inadequate air raid shelters and people’s reluctance to enter them caused many casualties. The condition of the corpses and their post-mortem treatment was thus co-constituted by the relationship between the victims and their material circumstances. This article concludes that an understanding of the treatment of the dead after war, genocide and mass violence must pay systematic attention to the materiality of death because the condition, collection and handling of human remains is affected by the material means that impacted on the victims.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal