Can contemporary developments in the life sciences help us understand the ways in which ‘adversity’ shapes mentalhealth conditions in the heterogeneous conglomerations we call cities? Many have pointed to the evidence that those living in cities are more likely to be diagnosed with mild, moderate and severe mental disorders than those living in rural settings. But it has proved difficult to identify precisely what it is in the urban experience that leads to these elevated rates. The same is true of research that has addressed urban mentalhealth in migrant and
Reinventing depression among Rio de Janeiro urban dwellers
Leandro David Wenceslau and Francisco Ortega
social or physical environments (Grant, 2018 ; Grant et al., 2009 ; Kjellstrom et al., 2007 ), it is also associated with better access to health care, education and employment (Gruebner et al., 2017 ).
Several studies show a negative correlation between mentalhealth and urban living. Mood and anxiety disorders are more prevalent among city dwellers (who have a 40 per cent increased risk of depression and more than 20 per cent for anxiety) than among residents of rural areas, and there is a higher risk of schizophrenia for people who grew up in cities in
Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city examines how urban health and wellbeing are shaped by migration, mobility, racism, sanitation and gender. Adopting a global focus, spanning Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America, the essays in this volume bring together a wide selection of voices that explore the interface between social, medical and natural sciences. This interdisciplinary approach, moving beyond traditional approaches to urban research, offers a unique perspective on today’s cities and the challenges they face. Edited by Professor Michael Keith and Dr Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos, this volume also features contributions from leading thinkers on cities in Brazil, China, South Africa and the United Kingdom. This geographic diversity is matched by the breadth of their different fields, from mental health and gendered violence to sanitation and food systems. Together, they present a complex yet connected vision of a ‘new biopolitics’ in today’s metropolis, one that requires an innovative approach to urban scholarship regardless of geography or discipline. This volume, featuring chapters from a number of renowned authors including the former deputy mayor of Rio de Janeiro Luiz Eduardo Soares, is an important resource for anyone seeking to better understand the dynamics of urban change. With its focus on the everyday realities of urban living, from health services to public transport, it contains valuable lessons for academics, policy makers and practitioners alike.
Urban transformation and public health in future cities
Michael Keith and Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos
that challenges the configurations of complex systems, policy interventions and public health can also be derived from rethinking the interplay of the biological and the social through a framing that foregrounds public health more in terms of a sense of propensity or emergence of patterns in specific contexts. For example, the study of urban mentalhealth has prompted Nikolas Rose and colleagues to return to the theoretical foundations of social science in analysis of the relationship between the metropolis and mentalhealth. In his chapter in this volume, Rose
transformation. We have argued in this volume that this trap can be avoided by situating the particular within a complex systems framing that both surfaces the ethical choices that have structured the inequalities of the city and makes sense of the universal in the context of the path dependencies of the active and disruptive historicities and spatialities of the metropolis. So, for example, in this volume Wenceslau and Ortega foreground the geographies of the Brazilian city in structuring the propensities of mentalhealth ( Chapter 7 ), and Soares its racist history ( Chapter
Transnational reflections from Brazilians in London and Maré, Rio de Janeiro
Cathy McIlwaine, Miriam Krenzinger, Yara Evans, and Eliana Sousa Silva
health and wellbeing. In the London context, health problems caused by VAWG were identified by all of the service providers as a major issue. One organisation working specifically with Latin American women noted that among 133 Brazilian users between 2013 and 2017, physical and mentalhealth problems accounted for 25 per cent of their consultations, much of which were linked with violence, with another 20 per cent seeking support in relation to sex work where, again, health problems were prominent (Evans and McIlwaine, 2017). Demand for counselling and psychotherapy
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Zeidner, M., Matthews, G. and Roberts, R. D. (2009) What We Know About Emotional
Intelligence: How It Affects Learning, Work, Relationships, and Our MentalHealth. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.