Understanding the violence of the benevolent welfare state in Norway
’ (Bourdieu, 2000, p. 228).
Where the one who is made to wait is forced into submission, the powerful is the one ‘who does not wait but who makes others wait’. Therefore,
‘absolute power is the power to make oneself unpredictable and deny other
people any reasonable anticipation, to place them in total uncertainty by
offering no scope to their capacity to predict’ (Bourdieu, 2000, p. 228).
Prolonged insecurity, as waiting in the asylum system entails, may
severely impact mentalhealth, and researchers and migrants alike refer
to this prolonged insecurity as psychological
Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.
Hannah Jones, Yasmin Gunaratnam, Gargi Bhattacharyya, William Davies, Sukhwant Dhaliwal, Emma Jackson, and Roiyah Saltus
elsewhere was ignored (see also Haylett, 2001 ).
We also heard how assumptions about migrants being morally
unsound could be a part of institutional decisions. In the following extract,
John, a Birmingham migrant rights advocate, talks about the culture of
disbelief within the asylum system and social care responses to asylum seekers
and refugees, by describing his struggle to get a mentalhealth assessment for
an Iranian asylum seeker who was
Conceptual and ethodological challenges for comparative analysis
Agnieszka Piasna, Brendan Burchell, Kirsten Sehnbruch, and Nurjk Agloni
for mentalhealth’, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 68:11, 806–12.
Cattell, R. B. (1957), Personality and motivation structure and measurement (World Book Co.).
Comin F. and Teschl, M. (2005), ‘Adaptive preferences and capabilities: Some preliminary
conceptual explorations’, Review of Social Economy, 63:2, 229–47.
Costa Jr, P. T. and McCrae, R. R. (1992), ‘Four ways five factors are basic’, Personality and
Individual differences, 13:6, 653–65.
Davis, L. E. (1977), ‘Enhancing the quality of working life’, International Labour Review,
to poverty and deprivation. These disadvantages
persist through schooling: ‘lower family socioeconomic position is
an important predictor of lower levels of educational attainment’
(Pickett and Vanderbloemen 2015: 4). The causal links between socioeconomic inequality and unequal educational outcomes are complex
and multiple and include distribution of mentalhealth problems, job
security and debt which impact on parenting styles and consistency
as well as the provision of good housing and nutrition. These factors
also have an impact on parental ability to support
NCDs listed in 1998 were (WHO 1998a: 14):
• cardiovascular diseases;
• chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;
• musculoskeletal conditions (such as arthritis and osteoporosis);
• mentalhealth conditions (mostly dementia and depression);
• blindness and visual impairment.
In 2002 the WHO again reported that NCDs may be significant and costly
causes of disability and reduced quality of life (WHO 2002a: 34), and can
be expensive to treat and long-lasting (WHO 2002b).
More recent research, however, amends the picture
leaflets that could be put through letterboxes locally.
Lisa does not work due to long-term mentalhealth issues. She lives with her
partner who encouraged her to join the EDL to ‘channel the anger’ that she was
experiencing but whose own job in the public sector prevented her having any
personal association with the movement.
Paths into the EDL
Explanations of receptivity to far right extremism at the individual level have
sought to identify vulnerable personality ‘types’. Theories of a fascist personality
type, first found in the work of Reich and Fromm and
Young Palestinian men encountering a Swedish introductory programme for refugees
absence. In his own words, his encounter with this
first caseworker was a total collision with Swedish bureaucracy. He felt that
she cared about his mentalhealth but at the same time she neither understood what he was going through nor shared his priorities. Her caring for
his health stayed within the confines of medicalised understandings that did
not necessarily extend to seeing the need for Rashid to pursue activities that
are meaningful to him but may contradict the action plan. Rashid explains
this lack of understanding in ethnic terms: this caseworker is an
A critical assessment of work effort in Britain in comparison to Europe
Alan Felstead and Francis Green
and Society, 18:3, 531–49.
Making work more equal
Davies, S. C. (2014), Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer 2013, Public MentalHealth
Priorities: Investing in the Evidence (London: Department of Health).
de Jong, T., Wiezer, N., de Weerd, M., Nielsen, K., Mattila-Holappa, P. and Mockałło,
Z. (2016), ‘The impact of restructuring on employee wellbeing: a systematic review of
longitudinal studies’, Work and Stress, 30:1, 91–114.
Eurofound (2012), Trends in Job Quality in Europe (Luxembourg: Publications Ofﬁce of the
positive effect on physical and mentalhealth
of living in an area of ethnic density, for example Bécares et al. 2012.
15 See Byrne (2014a) for discussions of migrant experiences of racism and
the development of understanding of geographies of racism.
16 See also Byrne (2006a).