Open Access (free)
Gareth Millward

medical authorities. This chapter discusses how “apathy” acted as an explanatory model and call to action for health authorities seeking to improve uptake of immunisation services among the population. It played a key role in constructing the public in the minds of policy makers, built out of long-standing paternalistic attitudes towards the working classes, particularly mothers. The Ministry considered apathy a problem because it threatened the successes achieved by public health policy up to this point. Immunisation had reduced the burden of

in Vaccinating Britain
Open Access (free)
Bridget Byrne and Carla De Tona

patterns and an affective sense of ease which is both racialised and classed (Ahmed 2004a, Thrift 2004, Nayak 2010). It also carries with it memories of the parents’ own schooling – these feelings could be summoned up quite viscerally: as 70 Choice, what choice? one mother put it, trying to work out what was best for her child was ‘like me being back in secondary school on my first day with my little map in hand’. Where you live and where your children go to school are both intimately linked to identity. The school you send your child to (as with where you live) will

in All in the mix
Sinéad Kennedy

feminisation of the workforce Ireland’s membership of the EU, infrastructural development and a decreased economic dependence on the United Kingdom had transformed the Irish economy by the late 1970s. Irish women grew up expecting and demanding a life outside the home, wanting to be more than wives and mothers. Between 1971 and 1983, the number of women in the workforce grew by thirty-four per cent. The number of married women in the workforce increased by 425 per cent over the same period. More remarkable are the changes that we have seen over the past decade, in the era

in The end of Irish history?
A blessing or a curse for the employment of female university graduates?
Fang Lee Cooke

12 The two-child policy in China: a blessing or a curse for the employment of female university graduates? Fang Lee Cooke Introduction The negative impact of the mothering role on women’s participation in the labour market has been well examined in the western context, where women with childcare responsibilities often assume part-time employment or take a career break (e.g. Fagan and Rubery, 1996). Policy attention, albeit with varying level of success, has been directed to address gender inequality in employment, particularly in nation states of the European

in Making work more equal
Australia, France and Sweden compared
Dominique Anxo, Marian Baird and Christine Erhel

workforce. This has resulted in an ‘institutional lag’ and, since the turn of the millennium, the need for a fresh focus on work and family policies (Baird and Williamson, 2009). In terms of social protection models, France belongs to the Continental model, including quite high levels of social redistribution and a well-developed family policy. Until the 1970s, it was characterised by a male breadwinner model, encouraging mothers’ inactivity through the tax system and through the under-development of formal childcare for younger children (under the age of three). The

in Making work more equal
South Africa in the post-imperial metropole
Laura Chrisman

involves desexualisation, so that works written by elderly women who are no longer biologically generative replace those by black women of reproductive age. Penguin’s early blurbing for Winnie Mandela sells her as a romantic soul mate, wife and mother of black South Africa; this is replaced by Sindiwe Magona’s grandmotherly persona as signalled by her 1991 autobiography title To My Children’s Children.14 Profiling black senior women further helps the publishers to displace threatening black male youth from the metropolitan cultural imagination. Such youth had been

in Postcolonial contraventions
Daniela Cutas and Anna Smajdor

access them. Social, legal and biological parenthood did not invariably coincide in the past. Different jurisdictions have various approaches to the ascription of parental rights and responsibilities. However, the default legal position is that a woman who gives birth to a child is that child’s mother and her husband is the father – regardless of whether she is the genetic mother or he the genetic father. Embedded in this view is the expectation that the two members of the married couple are the legal and social parents and also the biological parents of the child

in The freedom of scientific research
Open Access (free)
Anne McClintock and H. Rider Haggard
Laura Chrisman

to embody the threatening female power of generation, and bases this on the fact that Gagool is referred to `by her attendants as the “mother, old mother”’, and has the power to sentence people to death, as an isanusi (p. 246). This interpretation overlooks the fact that Gagool does not have a monopoly on Kukuana femininity. She is constantly juxtaposed with the young, beautiful and nubile Foulata, in whom the power of female generation is most clearly evident and does indeed explicitly pose a specific threat to colonialism: the threat of miscegenation. McClintock

in Postcolonial contraventions
The tragedy (and comedy) of accelerated modernisation
Kieran Keohane and Carmen Kuhling

constitutive Lack that makes us what we are.16 The Famine (in Irish an Gorta, meaning ‘hurt’, ‘injury’, ‘wound’) is the collective historical mortal wound that killed ‘traditional Ireland’, and at the same time an Gorta Mór – the great wound – is the primal scene of pain, horror and torment that gives birth to ‘modern Ireland’. It is the constitutive moment, the point that collects us as a society: it is the death of the collective mythic father and mother, the ancestors from whom we are all descended. It creates and recalls generations of emigration; it collects the

in The end of Irish history?
Open Access (free)
Everyday trajectories of activism
Hilary Pilkington

respondent of mixed ethnic origin was Lisa, who has African (on her father’s side) and Italian (on her mother’s side) heritage (see Box 6). Lisa had had a difficult childhood, spending several years in care and her contact with her dad had been intermittent and difficult, problematising her own knowledge of her heritage. Indeed, she said, since her dad ‘was a Barnardo’s kid’, he was not sure himself of his origins. What he had told her was that he had been born in Islington, that his mum was from Mauritius and his dad from Somalia and that he had been ‘adopted out by a

in Loud and proud