/post-Ottoman Europe, yet are rarely heard in wider Anglophone theoretical production.
Postcoloniality, postsocialism and the politics of knowledge production
The Yugoslav region's most widely read theorist, outside south-east European studies, is the Slovenian philosopher Slavoj Žižek, a Lacanian and critical theorist known both for his postcolonial readings of the ‘Europe’/‘Balkan’ division and for his suspicion of multiculturalism. While Žižek came later to balkanism than Bakić-Hayden or Maria Todorova, he transfers this critique into the field
speaking world through the vogue for the ‘politically correct’ and
‘multiculturalism’ now dominant in certain faculties of several major
American universities … The malignant magic of the grand charlatan is
liable to be with us for some time. (O’Brien 2002: 315)
Rarely has an erudite man been more misinformed. Rousseau was many
things; a vagabond, a note-copier, a poet, a composer, a pedagogue and a
political scientist but he was never a multiculturalist, and he certainly did
not go along with the liberal secularism of the so-called politically correct.
Of course many
What does race have to do with the Yugoslav region?
history might be? 3 Gilroy both calls for a ‘transcultural, international’, non-nation-state-centric mode of black social, intellectual and cultural history inside and outside Europe (Gilroy 1993 : 4) and emphasises that racialised hierarchies of belonging, the legacies of colonialism and slavery, are still circulating the globe in what many Americans and Europeans were then imagining as the supposedly cosmopolitan, multicultural and post-racial present (Gilroy 2004 ); moreover, his anti-essentialism towards race and racism harmonises with the deconstruction of
the aesthetics of transatlantic female celebrity, available across some racialised boundaries to certain women (conventionally attractive to a male heterosexual gaze) who could have many different racial and ethnic identities (Latina; biracial; any spatialised ethnic origin ‘from’ Spanish ‘to’ Iranian; light-skinned but black; dark-haired but white; or not even stated). Pop sometimes signifies their ‘erotic multiculturalism’ (Mcgee 2012 ) sonically with ‘oriental’ strings. Many women from the Balkans might occupy this ambiguous category, where contemporary
. 1994 . “ Struggles for Recognition in the Democratic Constitutional
State .” In Multiculturalism ,
edited by C. Taylor and A.
Gutmann . Princeton : Princeton University Press :
Hampton , Jean .
1998 . Political
Philosophy . Boulder : Westview .
Honohan , Iseult .
2002 . Civic
(Chang 2013b : 142). 13
Chang's difficulties obtaining official data about Chinese migration (beyond those of counting undocumented migrants and those who do not interact with census-taking) indicate statistical practices in Serbia and other post-Yugoslav states are more geared towards existing frames of ethnopolitics rather than recording new multicultural and multiracial categories in society: Serbia's Chinese population, estimated by Chang at 20,000–30,000 – similar to recorded numbers of Macedonians (25,847) or Bulgarians
statement of power in the relationship described. Later in the novel,
when Rennie is rescued from jail, her rescuer, an unnamed Canadian
diplomat, is described merely as a ‘multicultural
functionary’, though she does recognise the necessity of his role
in the assuaging of local egos in order for her to be released from
In this outsider reading of the frontier, Atwood seems to
, an increasingly
“aggressive fundamentalisation of existing
Here, it seems to me, that to critically and carefully
consider the entwining of these impulses – of the pluralization
and fundamentalisation of identities – is to ask and explore how
such entanglements straddle the state and its subjects, the nation and
its representations, multiculturalism and
varied appropriations and extensions across different continents from at
least the 1990s, there have arisen debates and discussions that have
been animated by broader considerations of colonial knowledge and
postcolonial difference, multicultural politics and cultural
Especially influential in these arenas are the writings of Gayatri
Liberal theorists like Walzer, Carens and Kymlicka have provided us with rich
accounts of immigrants’ claims to membership and multicultural rights
based on the idea that the rule of citizens over permanent strangers is a form
of tyranny (Walzer 1983 ), that immigrants become
over time members of society and democracies must be inclusive for all their
members (Carens 1989 ), or that liberal
democracies need to integrate immigrants into a shared