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A global history

In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.

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aspects are unavoidable, though especially in the nineteenth century, military physicians were loath to accept women as nurses. Still, the image of the nurse during warfare served as an important reflection of national identity and citizenship. The nurses’ position in defending the Empire was idealised 233 Rima D. Apple and their presence had significant rhetorical power, especially in the ‘home country’. At the same time, these women were providing vital medical aid, often under dire circumstances. With the chapters in this book, we see a much more complex picture

in Colonial caring
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neutral practice; it requires assessment in its relation to state power, national identity and the individual's sense of obligation to self and others. What's new in this book? While historians have explored the evolution of public health in different parts of the world, and of vaccination as a key component, few have located vaccination in relation to twentieth- and twenty-first-century political milestones like colonial

in The politics of vaccination
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Reconstruction of Warriors: Archibald McIndoe, The Royal Air Force and the Guinea Pig Club (Barnsley: Greenhill Books, Kindle edition, 2010); Julie Anderson, War, Disability and Rehabilitation in Britain: ‘Soul of a Nation’ (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2011).  7 Most literature on women’s work in the Second World War offers analyses of the post-­war return to the home and hearth. See, for example, Gail Braybon and Penny Summerfield, Out of the Cage: Women’s Experiences in Two World Wars (London: Pandora, 1987); Sonya O. Rose, Which People’s War? National Identity

in Negotiating nursing
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Nursing work and nurses’ space in the Second World War: a gendered construction

, Passing and the Special Operations Executive in the Second World War (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007), 13. 51 Sonya O. Rose, Which People’s War? National Identity and Citizenship in Britain, 1939–1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003). 52 Penny Summerfield, ‘Women and war in the twentieth century’, in June 20 Introduction Purvis (ed.), Women’s History: Britain, 1850–1945 (London: UCL Press, 1995); Penny Summerfield, Reconstructing Women’s Wartime Lives: Discourse and Subjectivity in Oral Histories of the Second World War (Manchester: Manchester

in Negotiating nursing

, Interpretations, Meanings and Environments (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1995) 294. See also Jeanne Moore, ‘“Placing the home in context’, Journal of Environmental Psychology 20 (2000): 207–17. 21 Penny Summerfield and Corinna Peniston-­Bird, ‘Women in the firing-­line: The Home Guard and the defence of gender boundaries in Britain in the Second World War’, Women’s History Review 9, 2 (2000): 232. 22 Penny Summerfield, ‘Gender and war in the twentieth century’, The International History Review 19, 1 (1997): 6. 23 Sonya O. Rose, Which People’s War? National Identity and Citizenship

in Negotiating nursing

advantage’, Nursing Mirror (23  March 1946): 424; Anonymous, ‘Living out and living in’, Nursing Mirror (2 March 1946): 361–2. 4 Sonya O. Rose, Which People’s War? National Identity and Citizenship in Britain, 1939–1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, Kindle edition), loc. 3830. 5 Sue Bruley, Women in Britain since 1900 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 1999), 118. 6 Margaret Hadley Jackson, ‘Causes and significance of the dwindling family’, in Sir James Marchant (ed.), Rebuilding Family Life in the Post-War World: An Enquiry with Recommendations (London

in Negotiating nursing
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, 2004) for such an approach to the franchise and citizenship. On a similarly passive view of interwar citizenship, see Sian Nicholas, ‘From John Bull to John Citizen: Images of National Identity and Citizenship on the Wartime BBC’ in Richard Weight and Abigail Beach, The Right to Belong: Citizenship and National Identity in Britain, 1930–1960 (London: I.B. Taurus, 1998), pp. 46

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48
Emergency nursing in the Indian Mutiny

were repeatedly scrutinised and questioned.21 Benedict Anderson’s formulation of national identity developed in Imagined Communities is particularly useful in exploring Fothergill’s observation further, and in framing the wider significance of the diary format that the chroniclers of the Lucknow garrison employ.22 In an era in which Anderson argues that the bonds of horizontal comradeship are consistently being secured by the global reach of print capitalism, the colonial diary represents a way in which women were able to engage with and join the imperial endeavour

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Press, 2004), www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/ 36251 (accessed 8 December 2014). 85 Dame S. Brown, Press cuttings, Ideas, 20 December 1906. 86 Summers, Angels and Citizens, p. 197, p. 218; E. Taylor, Wartime Nurse: One Hundred Years from the Crimea to Korea 1854–1954 (London:  ISIS, 2001), p. 69. 82 Nurses during the Anglo-Boer War 87 Summers, Angels and Citizens, p.  203; J.  Lee, ‘A nurse and a soldier:  gender, class and national identity in the First World War adventures of Grace McDougall and Flora Sandes’, Women’s History Review, 15:1 (2006), 84; Rappaport, No

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