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Greer Vanderbyl, John Albanese, and Hugo F. V. Cardoso

The sourcing of cadavers for North American skeletal reference collections occurred immediately after death and targeted the poor and marginalised. In Europe, collections sourced bodies that were buried and unclaimed after some time in cemeteries with no perpetual care mandate, and may have also targeted the underprivileged. The relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and abandonment was examined in a sample of unclaimed remains (603 adults and 98 children) collected from cemeteries in the city of Lisbon, Portugal, that were incorporated in a collection. Results demonstrate that low SES individuals are not more likely to be abandoned nor to be incorporated in the collection than higher SES individuals. Furthermore, historical data indicate that the poorest were not incorporated into the collection, because of burial practices. Although the accumulation of collections in North America was facilitated by structural violence that targeted the poor and marginalised, this phenomenon seems largely absent in the Lisbon collection.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Élisabeth Anstett

imprison, over the seventy years of their existence, around 15 million people. The precise nature of these camps, which were placed between 1930 and 1956 under the aegis of a dedicated central administration, the gulag,7 varied greatly according to specific local situations and prevailing historical circumstances, as these factors largely dictated the living conditions (and therefore life expectancy) of detainees, depending on whether, for example, they were employed in the agricultural or industrial sectors, or in mining, or imprisoned during particularly harsh periods

in Human remains and mass violence
Open Access (free)
Corpses and mass violence: an inventory of the unthinkable
Élisabeth Anstett and Jean-Marc Dreyfus

in chapter 5, largely drawing on German archives to describe the various modali­ties of treatment of corpses in occupied Croatia, a country from 1941 a satellite state of the Reich and the theatre of particularly murderous inter-ethnic conflicts. He shows how working ideologies along with historical legacy and geographical landscapes determined the disposal of the bodies. As an extension to the criminological approach, the historian Jean-Marc Dreyfus examines in chapter 6 the simultaneously diplomatic and medicolegal nature of the activities of the French Search

in Human remains and mass violence
Open Access (free)
Steven Feld

time to juxtapose listening, viewing and reading experiences and grapple with both the depth and comprehensiveness afforded, as well as newly critical questions raised about ethnographic authority and representation. The second of these extensions is a further dialogue on the nature of media and mediation, particularly surrounding sound and image technologies and how they operate in histories of memory circulation. In effect, this positions the ethnography of Basilicata as the production of multilayered archives whose mediated materials must be considered

in Sonic ethnography
Joost Fontein

themselves animated the heated debates that ensued. Many objections stressed the ‘unscientific’, ‘chaotic’ and ‘destructive’ nature of the exhumations. They were decidedly ‘unforensic’, and led by war veterans and spirit mediums who stressed ‘African’ ways of dealing with the dead, as they paraded villagers, reporters and TV crews through the mine, and past tangled piles of indistinct human remains materials laid out on plastic sheets, to illustrate the horrors inflicted by Rhodesians. But the nature of the materials themselves caused many to question the true identity of

in Governing the dead
Yehonatan Alsheh

context of the phenomena concerned, assuming them to somehow be more symptomatic or of primary agency in some underwriting causal scheme, is exactly what a serious look at corpses should help one stop doing. Corpses of mass violence and genocide, especially when viewed from a biopolitical perspective, force one to focus on the structures HRMV.indb 12 01/09/2014 17:28:33 The biopolitics of corpses  13 of the relations between all that participates in the enfolding case study; to acknowledge and account for the emergent nature of mass violence and genocide; and to

in Human remains and mass violence
Open Access (free)
Mass violence, corpses, and the Nazi imagination of the East
Michael McConnell

military clearly expected the entire population to resist the German advance, as this was a war of peoples rather than of militaries; the Germans thereby in effect launched a type of Volkskrieg of their own on the Soviet Union, by eroding the distinctions between civilians and combatants within its territory. Such orders highlighted the supposed fanatical, savage, and underhand nature of Eastern peoples. Contrary to these expectations, however, the invaders initially found little resistance from the local population and Stalin’s call DHR.indb 72 5/15/2014 12:51:09 PM

in Destruction and human remains
Integrative concepts for a criminology of mass violence
Jon Shute

help to explain historical non-engagement, two further factors are required to explain more recent and sustained engagement. The first concerns sets of HRMV.indb 85 01/09/2014 17:28:37 86  Jon Shute changes and developments that have been internal to the discipline. As criminology has expanded, diversified and become more intellectually mature, there has perhaps been a greater willingness – and institutional space – to challenge its foundational concerns and shibboleths. The US debate over the nature of and duty to realize a ‘public sociology’ has also spilled

in Human remains and mass violence
Exhumations of Soviet-era victims in contemporary Russia
Viacheslav Bitiutckii

pertaining to the discovery of these human remains in the forest near Somovo. The nature of the gunshot wounds (without exception, these were to the back of the head) pointed clearly to the cause of death being execution. Analysis of shell-cases found in the pits established that some of them were designed for the 1895 pattern 7.62 calibre Nagan revolver, and that all of them were made in the Tula ammunition factory no later than 1936.13 Incontrovertible proof of the fact that the victims of mass Stalinist terror discovered were peaceful residents, ordinary Soviet citizens

in Human remains and identification
Embodying the disappeared of the Argentinian dictatorship through law
Sévane Garibian

lasts forever. What lasts forever is that a person I can name is neither present nor absent.… The disappeared “is” in the middle of neither, nor.’10 It is thus a question of reversal: if the nature of war is to turn the corpse of the Other (‘the enemy without’) into a trophy and a proof of victory, then, conversely, the nature of the policy of enforced disappearance is to turn the corpse of the Self (‘the enemy within’) into an absence, a non-fact, a neither–nor – a double negative that strangely recalls the NN of Nomen nescio11 or the ­Hitlerian Nacht und Nebel

in Human remains and mass violence