Greer Vanderbyl, John Albanese, and Hugo F. V. Cardoso

The sourcing of cadavers for North American skeletal reference collections occurred immediately after death and targeted the poor and marginalised. In Europe, collections sourced bodies that were buried and unclaimed after some time in cemeteries with no perpetual care mandate, and may have also targeted the underprivileged. The relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and abandonment was examined in a sample of unclaimed remains (603 adults and 98 children) collected from cemeteries in the city of Lisbon, Portugal, that were incorporated in a collection. Results demonstrate that low SES individuals are not more likely to be abandoned nor to be incorporated in the collection than higher SES individuals. Furthermore, historical data indicate that the poorest were not incorporated into the collection, because of burial practices. Although the accumulation of collections in North America was facilitated by structural violence that targeted the poor and marginalised, this phenomenon seems largely absent in the Lisbon collection.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
Defences advanced in early modern sodomy trials in Geneva
William G. Naphy

suggest a final sentence. Once the Lieutenant was satisfied that there was no more information to be gained, he would prepare a summary of the case for the city’s supreme magisterial council.5 The Senate would then draft an official sentence, which would be read out in public. As these cases involved numerous interrogations often spread over weeks, there is a substantial body of material. More importantly, the verbatim nature of the records allows one to watch the case developing and to hear the dialogue between the magistrates, seeking evidence of guilt, and the

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
Open Access (free)
Christine E. Hallett

coincidence of nature without and nature within which I  long to remember.’30 Thirty-six years later, the Baroness de T’Serclaes sat down to write her own memoir:  ‘the past comes flooding in’, she asserted; ‘half-forgotten memories  – like the medals in their glass case  – seem to demand attention, a good dust, a new look at their significance’.31 Perhaps the most telling part of her comment is her reference to the ‘medals in their glass case’. In writing her memoir, she appears to be engaged in a dual process:  of both recreating the past and constructing a narrative

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

some disability scholars have argued, how were so many people with impairments able to work in a sector crucial to Britain’s industrial economic development? And how far, if at all, did they, or others, actually regard themselves as ‘disabled’ people? This chapter addresses these questions by examining the nature of mine work and the development of mining in the nineteenth century, paying special attention to the factors that enabled injured workers to participate in the working life of collieries and the extent to which they did so. To understand perceptions and

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
Open Access (free)
The Enlightenment and modernity
S.J. Barnett

the Church. Belief in an original Creator was part of the deistic view held by some enlightened writers who thought that God had not intervened in worldly affairs since Creation, so rendering the Church’s claim to mediation between divinity and humanity fraudulent. For such thinkers, evidence for God and a rational or ‘natural religion’ lay in the qualities (especially reason and conscience) of an unchanging human nature and the frame of nature itself. The understanding that there was a deist movement (sometimes termed freethinking movement) of some size in Europe

in The Enlightenment and religion
The intellectual influence of non-medical research on policy and practice in the Colonial Medical Service in Tanganyika and Uganda
Shane Doyle

. Some conditions, defined as social diseases, demanded particular attention, because their incidence was recognised as being shaped by the imperfectly understood nature of local societies. This chapter will examine the nature of colonial knowledge, and the formulation of medical interventions, by focusing on colonial reactions to two social diseases in two neighbouring societies: sexually transmitted

in Beyond the state
Open Access (free)
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin, and Steven Thompson

, however, Eaves’ case is rather mundane. These kinds of accidents and injuries were daily occurrences in the British coal industry, while the contestation of compensation cases in the courts was similarly an everyday reality in mining communities. The everyday and mundane nature of the case, however, is precisely the point, and it illustrates many of the major themes of this study of disability in industrial Britain. In the first place, Eaves’ case highlights the centrality of the compensation system to the understandings and experiences of disability in coalfield

in Disability in industrial Britain
Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

’s power. The analytical framework upon which the book is constructed draws on recent theoretical developments in the history of women and power and utilises traditional scholarly approaches to the study of the twelfth century. In so doing it re-defines the nature of twelfth-century lordship. The debate on the roles of medieval women has moved a long way from seeing them as victims of male dominance, and the ideology of separate spheres has been superseded by recent theoretical insights which consider the importance of gender and the impact of the female life cycle on

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Christine E. Hallett

and army her background was. In this sense she was the perfect military nurse. Her character, whilst far from simple, was astonishingly pure and unsullied for someone who had clearly encountered some of the worst horrors of the First World War. Kate Luard worked as ‘Lady Matron’ of Bradfield College for several years before being forced to retire by a back problem, the nature of which is unknown, though it is difficult to avoid speculation on its possible origins in her onerous and heavy nursing work. In old age, she lived with two sisters in Wickham Bishops, Essex

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Open Access (free)
The use of character evidence in Victorian sodomy trials
H. G. Cocks

. In fact the principal evidence comprised the competing testimonies of the police and a few conveniently myopic bystanders. Neither were Campbell’s intentions judged by the nature of his attire. Effeminacy, which might have been inferred from his dress, was not considered an inevitable sign of homosexual desire.4 In fact, Campbell’s explanation of his clothing as a form of disguise was accepted without murmur by the court. In the absence of a clear description of the defendant’s actions or a recognised interpretation of his general demeanour, evidence of the

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000