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Helen Brooks, Penny Bee, and Anne Rogers

openended questions In-depth unstructured interview - content is guided by the interviewee in response to a general prompt Semi-structured interviews are the most commonly used type of interview and were used frequently in the EQUIP programme. By their nature, semistructured interviews are less confined than more formally structured ones and require more improvisation on the part of the interviewer, but they also allow pre-set questions relating to the research aims and objectives to be explored. Semi-structured interviews still require significant preparation to be

in A research handbook for patient and public involvement researchers
Helen Brooks, Penny Bee, and Anne Rogers

traditionally tested through replication. However, this is not possible with qualitative research due to the specific, context-dependent nature of the study design. Instead, careful attention is given to the context (both individual and societal) in which interviews are based and to the researchers carrying out the study. For example, the team should reflect on and make explicit any assumptions or bias they may bring to interviews. This can include theoretical positioning or any past experience that may have relevance. Here is an example of a reflexive statement about

in A research handbook for patient and public involvement researchers
Owen Price and Lauren Walker

means that John was also likely to be exposed to a second harm, having his confidentiality breached. Any study that has the potential to cause distress should have an approved protocol to minimise and manage distress should it arise. This should include the nature of the support to be provided both during and after participation, emphasising that participants can end participation without penalty and have their data destroyed. Importantly, the wellbeing of the participant must be prioritised over the scientific benefit of their continued participation (Mental Capacity

in A research handbook for patient and public involvement researchers
Owen Price and Karina Lovell

within your sample will gradually begin to even out, until you have two equivalent groups to compare treatment effects. Study participants are randomly allocated to different treatment groups. Ideally, patients and researchers should remain unaware of which treatment was received until after the whole study is completed. All groups are treated identically except for the nature of the treatment or intervention they receive. 47 BEE (RESEARCH) PRINT.indd 47 A Research Handbook for Patient and Public Involvement Researchers Figure 12 Key features of RCTs The

in A research handbook for patient and public involvement researchers
Patrick Callaghan and Penny Bee

assumptions that should be met before the test is used. General factors that influence choice of statistical test include: • The research design • Sample size and sampling method • Number and nature of the independent and dependent variables • The spread and pattern of people’s responses to an outcome measure Quantitative data analyses allow researchers to make sense of numerical data gathered from research. Descriptive statistics are used to organise and describe data numerically often through showing measures of central tendency (e.g. mean, median, mode) or data spread

in A research handbook for patient and public involvement researchers