Emilian Kavalski and Magdalena Zolkos

8 The Recognition of Nature in International Relations Emilian Kavalski and Magdalena Zolkos We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly

in Recognition and Global Politics
Open Access (free)
War economies, peace economies and transformation
Jenny H. Peterson

actors to instigate, participate in or prolong violence or where profits from the trade of resources acts primarily as a source of funding for ongoing political struggles (though these two functions can exist simultaneously or become more and less dominant throughout the course of a conflict). The trade of a commodity or an economic exchange may not be the sole cause of conflict, but does become a fundamental part of the conflict dynamic, impacting the nature and/or trajectory of political violence. In this sense, war economies do not simply refer to the state of an

in Building a peace economy?
Liberal peacebuilding and the development-security industry

This book critically examines the range of policies and programmes that attempt to manage economic activity that contributes to political violence. Beginning with an overview of over a dozen policies aimed at transforming these activities into economic relationships which support peace, not war, the book then offers a sustained critique of the reasons for limited success in this policy field. The inability of the range of international actors involved in this policy area, the Development-Security Industry (DSI), to bring about more peaceful political-economic relationships is shown to be a result of liberal biases, resulting conceptual lenses and operational tendencies within this industry. A detailed case study of responses to organised crime in Kosovo offers an in-depth exploration of these problems, but also highlights opportunities for policy innovation. This book offers a new framework for understanding both the problem of economic activity that accompanies and sometimes facilitates violence and programmes aimed at managing these forms of economic activity. Summaries of key arguments and frameworks, found within each chapter, provide accessible templates for both students and aid practitioners seeking to understand war economies and policy reactions in a range of other contexts. It also offers insight into how to alter and improve policy responses in other cases. As such, the book is accessible to a range of readers, including students interested in peace, conflict and international development as well as policy makers and practitioners seeking new ways of understanding war economies and improving responses to them.

The nature of the development-security industry
Jenny H. Peterson

4062 building a peace economy_2652Prelims 25/11/2013 15:06 Page 43 3 Explaining the dynamics of transformation: the nature of the development-security industry AKING INTO account the common themes emerging from analyses of policies and agendas aimed at tackling the problem of war economies, it is clear that both the nature and outcomes of the transformation agenda are determined by a number of interdependent processes. These processes are determined by the interests and beliefs of powerful actors, in this case the network of actors that determine and implement

in Building a peace economy?
DSI approaches and behaviours
Jenny H. Peterson

for more nuanced programming is an option only when the policy either furthers or in no way challenges core ideological goals of the guiding actors. Thus, while there are cases when international goals appear to override the need for local transformation, there are also examples where both aims may be simultaneously furthered. Although there remains a substantial power imbalance between guiding actors and operational actors which is detrimental to positive transformation, the scope, nature and application of this agenda is still very much in negotiation. Constantly

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
Liberal reform and the creation of new conflict economies
Jenny H. Peterson

of the international mission responsible for reconstruction and economic development) and the DTI produced their own plans for privatisation. Both of these plans were rejected by the UN, largely on the grounds that they would have resulted in legal changes of ownership. Facilitating such changes was initially considered well outside the mandate of Resolution 1244 (Perritt, 2005). Some argue that this concern was misguided and that internationals misunderstood the nature of social ownership. Indeed, ownership in regard to SOEs appears as a blurred concept with

in Building a peace economy?
Learning from the case of Kosovo
Jenny H. Peterson

? contextualised. The particular political, social and economic dynamics influencing the nature and impact of each war economy needs to be considered not only in analytical terms but also in terms of creating policies to transform it. Following a review of the war economy in Kosovo, analysis in Chapters 5 to 7 will draw on the processes of intervention and post-conflict programming related to attempts to transform it. While a unique case in some regards, the examination of practices of aid and intervention in the area does have a wider applicability. Kosovo provides an excellent

in Building a peace economy?
Managing the criminal facets of war economies
Jenny H. Peterson

control? One of the cornerstones of liberalism, the rule of law is seen as essential in the development of prosperous, just and liberal societies (Peterson, 2010). Stable and impartial security services and judiciaries, based on democratic principles and a belief in universal human rights, are central to explanations regarding the pacific nature of liberal societies. However, while these liberal systems are often presented in this positive, peace-supporting light, other streams of analysis allude to a much more problematic side of this technology of liberalism. In

in Building a peace economy?
Current policy options and issues
Jenny H. Peterson

global level, and as such the DSI has created and continues to strive for improvements in international intelligence, security and legal regimes. For example, the transnational nature of many war economies and the transfer of profits from these activities through global financial mechanisms requires increased monitoring and control. It has therefore been suggested that the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) on money laundering could potentially be used to flag transactions which are suspected of being linked to the trade of conflict commodities. Though the FATF is not

in Building a peace economy?
Corporations, Celebrities and the Construction of the Entrepreneurial Refugee Woman
Annika Bergman Rosamond and Catia Gregoratti

representations are united in constructing the refugee women as a homogenous ‘other’ whose latent entrepreneurial abilities need to be activated to become closer to a hegemonic model of emancipated womanhood, namely a woman who works and can independently support herself and her family. Such constructions, we argue, reinforce a saviour/saved humanitarian logic while also obscuring the gender divisions of responsibilities and precarious nature of artisanal labour

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs