Greer Vanderbyl, John Albanese, and Hugo F. V. Cardoso

The sourcing of cadavers for North American skeletal reference collections occurred immediately after death and targeted the poor and marginalised. In Europe, collections sourced bodies that were buried and unclaimed after some time in cemeteries with no perpetual care mandate, and may have also targeted the underprivileged. The relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and abandonment was examined in a sample of unclaimed remains (603 adults and 98 children) collected from cemeteries in the city of Lisbon, Portugal, that were incorporated in a collection. Results demonstrate that low SES individuals are not more likely to be abandoned nor to be incorporated in the collection than higher SES individuals. Furthermore, historical data indicate that the poorest were not incorporated into the collection, because of burial practices. Although the accumulation of collections in North America was facilitated by structural violence that targeted the poor and marginalised, this phenomenon seems largely absent in the Lisbon collection.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
Cameron Ross

principally by political and economic factors rather than constitutional norms. The difficulties of creating a democratic federation in Russia have undoubtedly been made much more problematic by the nature of its origins as a quasi-federation within the USSR. One of the most destructive legacies which Russia inherited from the Soviet Union was its ethnoterritorial form of federalism. The ‘dual nature’ of Russian federalism, which grants different constitutional rights and powers to different subjects of the federation, has from the outset created major tensions and

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Open Access (free)
An interdisciplinary approach to the study of demand and its role in innovation

This book brings together a range of sociologists and economists to study the role of demand and consumption in the innovative process. Starting with a broad conceptual overview of ways that the sociological and economics literatures address issues of innovation, demand and consumption, it goes on to offer different approaches to the economics of demand and innovation through an evolutionary framework, before reviewing how consumption fits into evolutionary models of economic development. The book then looks at food consumption as an example of innovation by demand, including an examination of the dynamic nature of socially constituted consumption routines. It includes an analysis of how African Americans use consumption to express collective identity and discusses the involvement of consumers in innovation, focusing on how consumer needs may be incorporated in the design of high-tech products. It also argues for the need to build an economic sociology of demand that goes from micro-individual through to macro-structural features.

Open Access (free)
Anthropological approaches to rural Western Europe today

In the last three decades the anthropology of Western Europe has become almost exclusively an anthropology of urban life. The anthropology of rural life in Western Europe has been progressively neglected. Yet, just because cities concentrate people who continue to produce new and unexpected forms of social organization does not mean rurality becomes the emptying home of a tired traditionalism. Far from it. Since the city is only defined by opposition to the countryside, and since rural movements have urban effects, we cannot ignore the changes taking place in hamlets, villages, and rural towns throughout Western Europe. They are a integral part and parcel of life in Europe today. The key aim of this book is to redress this academic imbalance, by examining some of the central changes in the rural zones of contemporary Western Europe. In particular, most contributors look at the newcomers to these areas and the rainbow variety of effects they are having. The ‘alternative’ in our title is to be understood broadly. The contributors are not just looking at the self-proclaimed alternatives (hippies, New Agers, back-to-nature types, etc.) but at labour migrants from outside Western Europe and affluent resettlers as well. Members of all these groups are, in their own way, contributing towards the construction of a non-traditional countryside. All of them help to maintain life in rural areas which would otherwise be emptying of residents.

Open Access (free)
Tony Fitzpatrick

ancestors. We can harm the future, but the future cannot harm us. It is at this point that the critics of intergenerational justice step in and say something like the following. Justice implies reciprocity and reciprocity is, of its very nature, a two-way process: if the future cannot harm us then we cannot harm it. Can this objection be met? I believe so. The essential question concerns who is being harmed. I have already argued that we harm the future if we do not bequeath to them an environment that is consistent with levels of autonomy that we ourselves would accept

in After the new social democracy
Regional elections and political parties
Cameron Ross

democracy has been further consolidated by a third round of regional elections conducted over the period 1999–2001. Manipulation of the electoral system However, the cynical nature in which President Yeltsin manipulated the election process in the regions has done much to damage the develop- FAD6 10/17/2002 5:45 PM Page 93 Regional elections and political parties 93 ment of a democratic political culture. Yeltsin’s victory over the parliamentarians signalled a victory of executive power over legislative power which eventually led to the development of a semi

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
The dualist and complex role of the state in Spanish labour and employment relations in an age of ‘flexibility’
Miguel Martínez Lucio

, 2008; Jessop, 2002: 42; for a further discussion, see MacKenzie and Martínez Lucio, 2014). To this extent, the question of coordination of such levels and different approaches in public policy and state agencies politically and organisationally is one we need to be alert to (Crouch, 1993). What is more, the state intervenes not just in social spaces but also in ideological ones where specific issues, sensibilities and even national debates develop and configure the nature and impact of state policies (Locke and Thelen, 2006). Within these social and ideological

in Making work more equal
An introduction to the book
Colin Coulter

Irish Republic from the status of a ‘carthorse’ to that of a ‘thoroughbred’.3 As the evidence of a nascent economic boom began to accumulate in the mid-1990s, numerous analysts sought to characterise the nature of the changes underway. While various terms were coined to capture the transformation of the southern Irish economy, there was, of course, one that would become indelibly inscribed upon the process and the period. In the summer of 1994, Kevin Gardiner of the Morgan Stanley investment bank in London sought to draw a comparison between the performance of the

in The end of Irish history?
Open Access (free)
Tony Fitzpatrick

pulls away from prevailing conceptions where citizenship implies wage earning and so education shrinks towards the sphere of employment. But Macintyre’s is ultimately a strong communitarianism for which the nature of virtue resides within tradition and within the accepted canons. It treats the virtues as given and so its ethics is conservative and hierarchical, out of step with the modern, reflexive self. Yet Macintyre’s injunction to search for the good life is compelling and leads us towards a deliberative idea of welfare. This would be grounded in received notions

in After the new social democracy
Open Access (free)
Postcolonial governance and the policing of family
Author: Joe Turner

Bordering intimacy is a study of how borders and dominant forms of intimacy, such as family, are central to the governance of postcolonial states such as Britain. The book explores the connected history between contemporary border regimes and the policing of family with the role of borders under European and British empires. Building upon postcolonial, decolonial and black feminist theory, the investigation centres on how colonial bordering is remade in contemporary Britain through appeals to protect, sustain and make family life. Not only was family central to the making of colonial racism but claims to family continue to remake, shore up but also hide the organisation of racialised violence in liberal states. Drawing on historical investigations, the book investigates the continuity of colonial rule in numerous areas of contemporary government – family visa regimes, the policing of sham marriages, counterterror strategies, deprivation of citizenship, policing tactics, integration policy. In doing this, the book re-theorises how we think of the connection between liberal government, race, family, borders and empire. In using Britain as a case, this opens up further insights into the international/global circulations of liberal empire and its relationship to violence.