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Biography of a Radical Newspaper
Robert Poole

The newly digitised Manchester Observer (1818–22) was England’s leading radical newspaper at the time of the Peterloo meeting of August 1819, in which it played a central role. For a time it enjoyed the highest circulation of any provincial newspaper, holding a position comparable to that of the Chartist Northern Star twenty years later and pioneering dual publication in Manchester and London. Its columns provide insights into Manchester’s notoriously secretive local government and policing and into the labour and radical movements of its turbulent times. Rich materials in the Home Office papers in the National Archives reveal much about the relationship between radicals in London and in the provinces, and show how local magistrates conspired with government to hound the radical press in the north as prosecutions in London ran into trouble. This article also sheds new light on the founding of the Manchester Guardian, which endured as the Observer’s successor more by avoiding its disasters than by following its example. Despite the imprisonment of four of its main editors and proprietors the Manchester Observer battled on for five years before sinking in calmer water for lack of news.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

der weit über 80-Jährige in strömenden Regen der Veranstaltung bis zum Schluss bei. The presence of the oldest participant, Claude Levy, was moving; he first saw the light of day as Kurt Levy in Busenberg. Well over 80 years old, he remained standing upright in the pouring rain until the end of the event. From his own narrative in the film, and from an article about him in another German newspaper, Die Rheinpfalz, I learned a few new things about the family. It seems that Claude visited his parents twice in Gurs internment camp in late 1940 and 1941. He and his

in Austerity baby
Open Access (free)
Design and material culture in Soviet Russia, 1960s–80s
Author: Yulia Karpova

The major part of this book project was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 700913.

This book is about two distinct but related professional cultures in late Soviet Russia that were concerned with material objects: industrial design and decorative art. The Russian avant-garde of the 1920s is broadly recognised to have been Russia’s first truly original contribution to world culture. In contrast, Soviet design of the post-war period is often dismissed as hackwork and plagiarism that resulted in a shabby world of commodities. This book identifies the second historical attempt at creating a powerful alternative to capitalist commodities in the Cold War era. It offers a new perspective on the history of Soviet material culture by focusing on the notion of the ‘comradely object’ as an agent of progressive social relations that state-sponsored Soviet design inherited from the avant-garde. It introduces a shared history of domestic objects, handmade as well as machine-made, mass-produced as well as unique, utilitarian as well as challenging the conventional notion of utility. Situated at the intersection of intellectual history, social history and material culture studies, this book elucidates the complexities and contradictions of Soviet design that echoed international tendencies of the late twentieth century. The book is addressed to design historians, art historians, scholars of material culture, historians of Russia and the USSR, as well as museum and gallery curators, artists and designers, and the broader public interested in modern aesthetics, art and design, and/or the legacy of socialist regimes.

Yulia Karpova

1960s, informal research on consumer demand was carried out through shoppers’ conferences, complaint books that were mandatory for all shops, and letters to popular magazines.58 In 1960 the Institute of Public Opinion emerged at Komsomol’skaia Pravda, the official newspaper of the all-Union Soviet youth organisation (Komsomol). This was not a government initiative, but a grassroots one by the newspaper’s editorial board, which consisted of philosophers and journalists.59 The Institute’s second opinion poll in 1960 concerned the ‘dynamics and problems of standards of

in Comradely objects
Open Access (free)
Tania Anne Woloshyn

Ajax’s encouragement that they do so. It is not surprising that companies professed the superiorities of their own products against those of their competitors, as Hanovia did. Nor is it surprising that so many different advertisements appeared in the one supplement. After all, by the interwar years half the income of newspapers came from advertising. 24 What is surprising is that the articles, written by eminent physicians

in Soaking up the rays
Open Access (free)
Tania Anne Woloshyn

, though obviously not unique to it. 10 We encounter this intervention so frequently – in illustrated newspapers, advertisements, popular treatises, medical handbooks, and institutional archives – that it epitomises light therapy’s visual culture. 11 This intervention is exemplified by an image in a promotional booklet for the Peebles Hydropathic Hotel (Hawick), which offered light therapy to its

in Soaking up the rays
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

. She had to apply for naturalisation to regain her British citizenship in October 1941. The irrationality of the arrest and internment of aliens, many of them doing valuable work in Britain, is captured in a contemporary newspaper account from Manchester, quoted by François Lafitte in 1940: A chemist who has held an important position at a chemical works in the Manchester district for three or four years was dismissed at a moment’s notice (his hat and coat were brought out to him: he was not allowed to go to his office to bring them) when the factory was taken over

in Austerity baby
Open Access (free)
Tania Anne Woloshyn

newspapers. 7 In Hanovia’s ‘Homesun’ pamphlet, Hill was cited directly as one of many authorities recommending its use, alongside Sir William Arbuthnot Lane (President of the New Health Society), the surgeon Sir Bruce Bruce-Porter, and the eugenicist Dr Caleb Saleeby (President of the Sunlight League). 8 The ‘Homesun’ might be prescribed for personal curative use by one’s physician, but it was primarily designed for preventive

in Soaking up the rays
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

, manifests the same generic suspicion of the outside world. Austerity baby [ 91 ] [ 92 ] ‘Oy,’ Mr. Greenberg sighed, wrapping the haddock in a week-old Yiddish Gazette from the pile of discarded newspapers his customers saved for him. ‘You remind me of my wife, Mrs. Lipkin. She won’t let me have the wireless on loud, in case it disturbs our Christian neighbours. It wouldn’t matter if we lived next door to Yidden, she always says.’ He smiled wryly. ‘All these years our people have been in England and we’re still trying not to offend anyone.’ hH Cheetham Hill, a mile

in Austerity baby
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

supporter of scientific and educational activities in Manchester. With C.P. Scott, editor of the Manchester Guardian newspaper, he founded Withington Girls School, so that his own daughters and other girls might have a good education. With two other Manchester men he guaranteed the continuation of the Hallé Orchestra after the death of Charles Hallé in 1895, and was prominent in the appointment of Hans Richter as the new conductor. He took an active interest in Owens College, precursor of Manchester University, endowing a chair in German literature, and in 1898 laying the

in Austerity baby