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Patrick Doyle

National Ideal The idea of co-operation as a desirable and normative basis for national behaviour showed how deeply embedded elements of its ideology became within contemporary political discourse. In economic terms, Hanly argued that all forms of activity needed to work in subservience to an idealised form of an Irish nationality, which he equated to ‘a supreme form of co-operation’. The Irish past showed how strong English influences promoted an individualistic and selfish conception of development. To counter this effect

in Civilising rural Ireland
Bonnie Clementsson

. The turn-of-the-century world of ideas, 1872–1940 Around the turn of the century in 1900, science had begun to replace religion as a normative basis for ethics and morals. As religion was increasingly privatised, the general social influence of the clergy lessened, doctors and scientists stepping up instead as obvious new spokesmen for the good of society. Family life and sexuality became an issue for medical experts. Through Charles Darwin's theory of evolution the animal origins of the human race were made visible, which

in Incest in Sweden, 1680–1940