The disposal of bodies in the 1994 Rwandan genocide
In early 1991, the FAR murdered 1,000 Tutsi.27 Following a
new constitution (June 1991) oppositionparties (demanding
negotiations with the RPF) emerged, including the Mouvement
Démocratique Républicain (MDR) and the multi-ethnic Parti
Liberal (PL).28 In March 1993, 300 Tutsi were killed by the Presi
dential Guard and interahamwe militia (see below) after the state
radio (Radio Rwanda) claimed that the PL and RPF planned to
assassinate opposition leaders.29 The oppositionparties, however,
remained united and forced Habyarimana to form a coalition
., p. 79.
A. C. G. M. Robben, ‘State terror in the netherworld’, in A. C. G. M.
Robben (ed.), Death, Mourning and Burial: A Cross-Cultural Reader
(Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), p. 135.
The organization Mujahedin-e Khalq was the Islamic Republic’s prin
cipal oppositionparty. It began an armed struggle in June 1981.
Makaremi, Le Cahier d’Aziz, pp. 46–9.
Testimony from Roya Sadeghi, at the International People’s Tribunal
on the Abuse and Mass Killings of Political Prisoners in Iran (1981–
88), Findings of the Truths Commission, p. 219.
Testimony from Esmat Vatanparast
a long-established pattern of
using a narrow and exclusivist legacy of the liberation struggle to
buttress its own legitimacy. This includes undermining that of oppositionparties, including ‘old’ (and ‘new’) ZAPU, the fractious factions
of the MDC with whom it was then sharing a ‘unity government’,
and, more recently, a host of emergent Ndebele pressure groups such
as the Mwthazi Liberation Front (MLF), a radical group agitating
for secession for Matabeleland. It is not surprising therefore that the
crude politicking at Chibondo provoked the anger of those linked