society, without requiring any institutionalised negotiation. Thus the
advanced capitalist democracies are ‘despotically weak but infrastructurally
51 Joel Migdal, Strong Societies and Weak States: State–Society Relations and State
Capabilities in the Third World (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988).
52 On Russian state weakness as leading to the emergence of ‘mafia’ groups which
exert partial control over organisedviolence and taxation, see Vadim Volkov,
‘Violent Entrepreneurship in Post-Communist Russia’, Europe–Asia Studies, 51:5