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dissenting groups to question their roles in national security and to promote new understandings of the relationship between national and personal security in Israel. This process of reflection on the military in Israeli society has developed further in the context of the Middle East peace process (MEPP). Peace negotiations have altered the context in which the theory and practice of security in the region

in Redefining security in the Middle East
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Redefining security in the Middle East

conference, a Labour Government, traditionally seen as more willing to engage in peace negotiations, came to power in Israel in 1992 (the first since 1977). That Government entered into secret talks with Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) officials in Oslo, Norway. The Oslo process, as it has come to be known, had the effect of bypassing the very public Madrid agendas and allowed for concrete efforts and results

in Redefining security in the Middle East
A veiled threat

Israeli occupation. Public opinion surveys and various elections conducted for student unions, professional syndicates, and the chambers of commerce exhibit a clear pattern in growth for Hamas . At those times when the lack of significant progress in the peace negotiations has led to increased feeling of disenchantment and hopelessness among the Palestinian people, many Palestinians have demonstrated a greater

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Israel and a Palestinian state

. 9 For the breakdown of peace negotiations by 2001 see Sontag, 2001 ; Malley and Agha, 2001 . 10 See Legrain, 1999 : 9–15; also Robinson, 2000 : 77–90; Martin, 2002 : 1–13. 11 A Palestinian state would also have an

in Redefining security in the Middle East

1989 President dos Santos made an offer of peace to UNITA, which led to peace negotiations in Gbadolite (Zaire), brokered by eight African countries, on 22 June 1989. However, while dos Santos and Savimbi shook hands and signed a cease-fire agreement, within one week the parties were accusing each other of violating the cease-fire. Between April 1990 and May 1991, six rounds of negotiations between the

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change

territorial unit, an Israeli security presence in much of the West Bank, and ongoing (though at the time of writing, seemingly halted) peace negotiations with Israel on the very future of a Palestinian state. It can, however, be used as barometer for the theoretical arguments presented in the sections above. Conclusion This chapter does not intend to suggest that all authoritarian

in Redefining security in the Middle East