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A Congolese Experience
Justine Brabant

conflicts’ have we, as journalists, hoped to bring to light? That expression is used a lot with regard to the DRC. But what ‘neglect’ are we talking about when, in terms of budget, the DRC has the largest UN peacekeeping mission and hundreds of active national and international NGOs? I understand how the language of emergency, crisis and neglect appeals to the communications people at emergency medical NGOs, and I make no judgements about the relevance of its use – these are

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Aid Industry and the ‘Me Too’ Movement
Charlotte Lydia Riley

this is legal, since 2006 ( Daccord, 2018 ). The British Red Cross also admitted ‘a small number’ of sexual harassment or abuse cases in the UK ( Gillespie et al. , 2018 ). This sits in a longer international context, including the controversies around UN peacekeeping forces, starting with Cambodia in 1993, encompassing Bosnia and Herzegovina, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, DRC and Haiti, which led to the UN concluding in 2013 that the biggest risk in peacekeeping

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Debates Surrounding Ebola Vaccine Trials in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo
Myfanwy James, Joseph Grace Kasereka, and Shelley Lees

peacekeeping mission to provide security ( Nyenyezi Bisoka et al. , 2021 ; GEC, 2020 ). The introduction of a well-funded Ebola response (approximately $1.2 billion) into an area where basic services are underfunded gave the impression that the response aimed to benefit responders rather than local communities ( Crawford et al. , 2021 : 41). In addition, the response created a parallel system, bringing staff from Kinshasa and abroad who were paid more

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Eşref Aksu

clearly demonstrates that it was not ‘typical’ of its period. The UN’s Congo mission was far more ambitious than any peacekeeping mission hitherto. Nevertheless, it is precisely the ambitious nature of the mission that makes it instructive for our purposes. We know, for instance, that the UN used force in the Congo. But what precisely were the objectives and underlying dynamics of the operation? What

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
The analytical framework
Eşref Aksu

(UNSCOB, 1947–54), for example, is cited by some sources as the first UN peacekeeping mission. 52 Others disagree, arguing that UNSCOB members were not operating under the Secretary-General’s authority. 53 The second category consists of those UN operations which are also often labelled ‘UN peace enforcement’. UN missions authorised – whether in part or at a certain stage – to take

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Evolution of the normative basis
Eşref Aksu

preferences of key actors interacted in intra-state peacekeeping environments in the early 1960s, and juxtapose the ensuing normative synthesis with the ideational attributes of the 1990s, which took shape in a different historical structural setting. Emerging normative basis on the eve of double ‘peaks’ The emergence of UN peacekeeping missions can be traced almost as far back as

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Eşref Aksu

representatives to be established in their countries in order to facilitate the implementation of the Namibia plan. Though Angola considered a UN presence on its territory to be an infringement of its sovereignty, 14 the day would come when it would consent to hosting a large UN peacekeeping mission. In the 1980s, the Reagan administration introduced the notion of ‘linkage’, 15 according to which the

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Impact of structural tensions and thresholds
Eşref Aksu

observance of the Central American security agreement, Esquipulas II , between Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. Although Central America had always been a region of severe conflicts, this was the first time a UN peacekeeping mission would be deployed in this exclusively American sphere of influence. 127 In 1989, two other operations were authorised in Central America, in Nicaragua

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Open Access (free)
An endangered legacy
Matteo Dian

the utility of military cooperation with American forces in the country. US forces in Japan, along with the broader alliance, enjoyed unprecedented approval among the Japanese public. 15 As importantly, members of the JSDF were celebrated as heroes by the Japanese media, arguably for the first time in the entire post-war period. This opened a window of opportunity. For instance, one of the effects of the response to the 3–11 crisis was public acceptance of the dispatch of the JSDF abroad in peacekeeping missions, and the approval of measures aimed at improving

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific
Eşref Aksu

integrity. Though de Gaulle’s France was at the time more favourably disposed towards the UN than towards NATO, following the fallout of the Congo operation it was less than enthusiastic about the creation of a new UN peacekeeping mission. For France, no external involvement was desirable in Cyprus, whether it be by regional state parties to the conflict (Greece and Turkey), the world powers

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change