talent. The larger the organ, the greater the corresponding faculty, which could be measured by the size and shape of the skull. Thus, phrenology could explain the relative strengths and weaknesses of a person's mind and character. Although phrenology's claims were not substantiated by experimental scientific method, historians of science have traced the real and lasting impact of Gall's thinking, from the diffusion of scientific naturalism that prepared the public for Darwinian evolution, to its influence upon fields as diverse as psychology, physicalanthropology
Health as moral economy in the long nineteenth century
Journal of PhysicalAnthropology , 150:1 (January 1, 2013), 29–37, https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.22120 . For a very different approach, see R. Wilkinson and M. Marmot, Social Determinants of Health , 2nd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).
C. Kent, ‘Victorian social history: post-Thompson, post-Foucault, postmodern’, Victorian Studies , 40:1 (1996), 97–133; R. Cooter, ‘“Framing” the End of the Social History of Medicine
American Journal of PhysicalAnthropology , 58:121 (1982): pp.
The Communicable Disease Center was renamed the Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention in 1992 but has retained the CDC
Langmuir's title at CDC