This book seeks to review the state of political issues early in the twenty-first century, when New Labour is in its second term of office. As part of the updating process it became necessary to choose which political issues are important. The book includes the main issues which appear in current Advanced Level Politics syllabuses. In the case of Edexcel, which offers a specific political issues option in its A2 specification, all the specified issues have been included. The book deals with the process of constitutional and political change which are issues in themselves. It also includes material on constitutional reform (incorporating the recent development of human rights in Britain), and devolution. The book includes the global recession and other recent political developments and looks at the important issues in British politics since 1945. It examines the key issues of British politics today: economic policy, the Welfare State, law and order, environment policy, Northern Ireland, issues concerning women, European integration and the European Union, and the impact of the European Union on Britain. The book also deals with the European Union and Britain's relationship to it. Finally, it must be emphasised that Britain's relationship to the European Union is in itself a political issue which has fundamentally changed the party system.
(accessed 28 June 2019) .
Frydl , K.
J. ( 2006 ),
‘ Kidnapping and State Development in the United
States ’, Studies in American PoliticalDevelopment , 20 ,
18 – 44 .
( 2013 ), ‘ How Somali Pirates and
Terrorists Made Bank off Two Western Hostages
hypothesis, another key tenet of
liberal theory which suggests that democracies do not fight other democracies
and are also less likely to suffer from civil wars, has also aided in the fusing of
development and security agendas with the former promoting it as a mode of
politicaldevelopment and the latter supporting it for reasons of security.
The adoption of liberal political and economic approaches by both development and security actors over the past several decades has led to a common
agenda and legitimising discourse – economically developed and democratic
. There are three families and the political actors
are influenced by families’ (I34). These three families are thought to be key
players in organised crime. No documents were provided, nor were specific
names given and it should be noted that other security agents based in the
territory saw little connection between crime and politics in Kosovo (I10,
I65). Nonetheless, such accusations and perceptions of political connections
to the world of organised crime persist and continue to affect politicaldevelopment in Kosovo. In 2009 a self-confessed criminal, Nazim Bllaca
successful only or mostly
in the West.1
In order to provide the reader with some of the flavor and spice of
Landtag elections, and to assess better some of the hypotheses about
Land elections and parties that were mentioned in the previous chapter
(pp. 267–273), a very brief overview of politicaldevelopments in the
Länder since 1945 is presented below. This overview also contains a summary of the major issues, personalities, and events associated with the
most recent Land elections.
The Länder and German federalism
political systems have long been attuned
to US influence (Philip), and in East Asia. The potentially
adverse consequences for democracy are well rehearsed.
The rapid accumulation of political studies of democratization in the 1990s came about as a result of politicaldevelopments on the ground. The one tracked the other; and it is
worth asking now what are the implications for the future.
The evidence so far has been of dynamism in the study
of democratization. There is scope for further advances in
theory and in practice, such as by moving away from the
neo-liberal right. Kevin Hickson makes the case for the continuing relevance of Anthony Crosland’s vision of social democracy and
responds to a variety of critics who have argued that Crosland’s ideas
have been rendered inapplicable by post-1970 economic and politicaldevelopments. Ben Jackson contests the portrayal of traditional social
democratic rhetoric in the political thought of modernisers by undertaking a comparative analysis of the rhetoric used in Britain and the United
States to argue for economic redistribution during the struggle for the
the nationwide protection of
civil rights and the guarantee of free and fair contestation
and participation in genuine democratic elections. This did
not happen until the late 1960s.
This picture is at variance with the conventional narrative
presented in those accounts of America’s politicaldevelopment reliant upon Alexis de Tocqueville’s nineteenthcentury survey and Louis Hartz’s articulation of American
‘individualist’ liberalism (Hartz 1955). Foremost amongst
this new, reflective, American scholarship is the work of
the political scientist Rogers Smith, who
, their effects are
now filtering into more substantive analyses, including contemporary work on the
politicaldevelopment of Britain (see, for instance, Bevir and Rhodes 1998, 1999;
English and Kenny 1999; Kerr 2001; Marsh, Buller, Hay, Johnston, Kerr, McAnulla
and Watson 1999; Smith 1999). What is perhaps most interesting about this emergent political science is the extent to which its distinctive analytical concerns are
shared by an unlikely assortment of authors defending a variety of otherwise
antagonistic theoretical approaches. Though divided by the absence of a
prepares Western politicians and policy-makers for both realistic
foreign policy and domestic politicaldevelopments rather than desirable
ones or wishful thinking.
The mainstream view of Russia in the West has on one hand
tended to see Russia as an appendage of Europe, one that is bound to Europe, rather than seeing it as a Eurasian
state with interests not only in Europe but across the world. On the