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Philip Cerny

84 DISCIPLINES 6 International Political Economy philip cerny International Political Economy, domestic politics and democracy International Political Economy (IPE) had already achieved prominence as a field of study by the start of the 21st century, but its role has changed dramatically, with issues of democratic governance and policy-making moving to the forefront. Originally, however, the roots of IPE lay in economic aspects of relations among nation-states in the international system – foreign economic policy, trade, the spread of production systems and

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Credibility, dirigisme and globalisation
Ben Clift

4 The political economy of French social democratic economic policy autonomy 1997–2002: credibility, dirigisme and globalisation Ben Clift Introduction: the crisis of social democracy The U-turn of French Socialism in 1983 saw a retreat from egalitarian redistribution, full employment and social justice as the priorities of economic policy. A prolonged period of ideological and programmatic flux ensued. The manifest failure of a decade of Socialist Government to make any impression on the soaring unemployment figures was devastating. This, acting in tandem with

in In search of social democracy
Editor: Peter Burnell

Democratization is a major political phenomenon of the age and has been the focus of a burgeoning political science literature. This book considers democratization across a range of disciplines, from anthropology and economics, to sociology, law and area studies. The construction of democratization as a unit of study reflects the intellectual standpoint of the inquirer. The book highlights the use of normative argument to legitimize the exercise of power. From the 1950s to the 1980s, economic success enabled the authoritarian governments of South Korea and Taiwan to achieve a large measure of popular support despite the absence of democracy. The book outlines what a feminist framework might be and analyses feminist engagements with the theory and practice of democratization. It also shows how historians have contributed to the understanding of the processes of democratization. International Political Economy (IPE) has always had the potential to cut across the levels-of-analysis distinction. A legal perspective on democratization is presented by focusing on a tightly linked set of issues straddling the border between political and judicial power as they have arisen. Classic and contemporary sociological approaches to understanding democracy and democratization are highlighted, with particular attention being accorded to the post-1989 period. The book displays particularities within a common concern for institutional structures and their performance, ranging over the representation of women, electoral systems and constitutions (in Africa) and presidentialism (in Latin America). Both Europe and North America present in their different ways a kind of bridge between domestic and international dimensions of democratization.

The nature of the development-security industry
Jenny H. Peterson

nature and choice of policies aimed at their management. Understanding the dominant conceptualisations of war economies and the issues associated with each of these offers further insight into the dilemma of transformation. Research findings presented in Chapters 5 to 7 will show the diversity of actors’ opinions regarding political economies of violence, and indeed examples of when individuals and organisations ‘strayed’ off the stereotypical liberal path are central to the conclusion of this book. Nonetheless, it is possible to identify the dominant understandings of

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
Protecting borders, confirming statehood and transforming economies?
Jenny H. Peterson

assumptions could actually prove counter-productive in transforming the smuggling facet of Kosovo’s political-economy. The neo-liberal policies on which modern customs and trade policies are based could actually be a cause of the activities customs agencies are trying to eradicate. While a modern customs service is meant to cut down on trade barriers and facilitate trade, documents which prove the origin/value of goods, and other details such as health and safety requirements, are biased towards modern, advanced and established traders (Kaminski and de la Rocha, 2003; Pohit

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
War economies, peace economies and transformation
Jenny H. Peterson

transform them into relationships which no longer pose a threat to peace and security. It is these specific reforms, a subset of peacebuilding and economic reforms, which this book will explore. These policies, discussed in greater detail in forthcoming chapters, aim to manage or transform what are often colloquially referred to as war economies. Often studied under the rubric of political economies of violence, these forms of economic activity are considered to be antithetical to the creation of peace. They refer to occasions where economic incentives either motivate

in Building a peace economy?
DSI approaches and behaviours
Jenny H. Peterson

formal models imposed by the international community. There is also an ethical argument to be had related to the hypocrisy involved in some attempts by DSI actors to install such modes of governance. The DSI in fact uses techniques that contradict their own values and standards in order to bring post-conflict states and economies in line with the ideal liberal form of political-economy. They have broken their own guidance on judicial independence, democratic decision making and transparency. In this sense, transformation policies are in fact counterproductive to the

in Building a peace economy?
Managing the criminal facets of war economies
Jenny H. Peterson

justice in the post-conflict phase, with the benefits of programming contributing to a more equitable society. These justifications for the importance of RoL programming in the transformation agenda are strengthened by the fact that in some cases individuals working within RoL institutions are themselves active in modes of criminality that contribute to political economies of violence (Brand, 2002; Dziedzic et al., 2002; Heinemann-Grüder and Grebenschikov, 2006). Security agents, both local and international, are known to be either the direct beneficiaries of conflict

in Building a peace economy?
Learning from the case of Kosovo
Jenny H. Peterson

violence between its two main ethnic groups or the ethics and legality of the NATO intervention there in 1999. Unlike other civil wars, the economic dynamics of this conflict have received much less attention in terms of academic investigations into the political-economy of conflict. However, the same economic processes and relationships which in both academic and policy circles are cited as impacting more ‘infamous’ war economies, such as those in Sierra Leone and Afghanistan, have been well documented by aid practitioners and policy makers as having impacted upon the

in Building a peace economy?
Current policy options and issues
Jenny H. Peterson

contribution to political economies of violence and for companies themselves to consider their potential role in violence before becoming deeply entrenched in the conflict dynamic. Linked to CSR programmes, Export Credit Agencies, government agencies which provide support for home companies conducting business abroad, have also recognised the need to ensure that the companies which they support are acting responsibility (Hildyard, 2005). Bodies such as Canada’s export development agency, the EDC, now also engage in extensive CSR reviews in regard to the Canadian corporations

in Building a peace economy?