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The revolt of democratic Christianity and the rise of public opinion
S.J. Barnett

thoroughgoing re-evaluation of the role of the philosophes in the development of central tenets of enlightened thought such as religious toleration are, however, my own. 130 France: the revolt of democratic Christianity Bourbons, Huguenots and Jansenists Traditionally, France has been seen as one of the great examples of absolutist rule. Hence, comparison of its political life with England, where Parliament was challenging and limiting the monarchy in fundamental respects, has been understood as comparing the proverbial chalk with cheese. The consensus on the character of

in The Enlightenment and religion
A case study in the construction of a myth
S.J. Barnett

was concerned to promote and ensure the Protestant succession in England as a counter to the threat of European Catholic hegemony. The heart of the Whig historical view, at that time synonymous with the general Protestant scheme, depicted Europe’s fall 98 The English deist movement from the glory of ancient Rome to the superstition and tyranny of the medieval Catholic Church.39 In this scheme, the Reformation had partly broken the Church’s stranglehold on European culture and political life. But Catholicism was not yet fully defeated, and had to some extent revived

in The Enlightenment and religion
S.J. Barnett

studies of elite culture have moved on from the narrow orientation of Peter Gay and his ‘family’ of philosophes to include a greater spread of thinkers. Thus, beyond set-piece studies of events such as the French Revolution and other revolts where the de facto involvement of the masses in political life cannot be denied, the dominance of the top-down model within Enlightenment studies has rarely been questioned. Although in itself welcome, the problem with the work of Kors, for instance, is that while striving to show how theological debate had unwittingly fed the

in The Enlightenment and religion
The social sphere
Ami Pedahzur

Education team responsible for this programme worked vigorously in order to present study curricula that would address the essence of social and political life in the State of Israel and, by the same token, demote the formal procedural aspect from its dominant position. This approach constituted a challenge to the Ministry of Education’s official policy over the years, where controversial topics were kept out of the school classes. 41 An initial perusal of Being Citizens in Israel, the basis of the new curriculum and approved as the core textbook

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
From the ‘militant’ to an ‘immunised’ route?
Ami Pedahzur

‘immunised defending democracy’. Although not a country entirely free of extremist phenomena and political violence, the political culture of the USA gives an impression of considerable commitment to liberal and democratic values. Furthermore, the ‘pro-democratic civil society’, which has proved to be a cornerstone of United States’ political life, is largely successful in responding effectively to the challenges of extremism. A review of that country’s response to these challenges, whether in the form of political parties or other types of organisation, shows evidence of

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
The parliamentary arena
Ami Pedahzur

establishing a Jewish theocracy. The advocate of such a programme was Kach, led by Rabbi Meir Kahane. Kach and Israeli politics – the early years Meir Kahane, leader of the militant Jewish Defence League in the United States, emigrated to Israel in September of 1971 and brought with him a new rhetoric and violent political style previously unknown to Israeli society or political life. Upon his arrival in Israel he declared that it was not his intention to become involved in Israeli politics, but rather that he would like to

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence