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The Catholic challenge during the Thirty Years’ War
Alison Rowlands

-standing and extremely acrimonious battle 108 WITCHCRAFT NARRATIVES IN GERMANY to defend its judicial and political power in Gebsattel, a battle which had acquired an additional religious edge in the spring of 1627. As discussed in the Introduction, Rothenburg was situated in a part of early modern Germany where rights over land and people were particularly fragmented and subject to competing claims from rival lords.11 The village of Gebsattel was one of the biggest thorns in the flesh of the city councillors in the context of their attempts to defend and extend

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany
Open Access (free)
John Toland and the crisis of Christian culture, 1696–1722
Author: Justin Champion

This book explores the life, thought and political commitments of the free-thinker John Toland (1670–1722). Studying both his private archive and published works, it illustrates how he moved in both subversive and elite political circles in England and abroad. The book explores the connections between Toland's republican political thought and his irreligious belief about Christian doctrine, the ecclesiastical establishment and divine revelation, arguing that far from being a marginal and insignificant figure, he counted queens, princes and government ministers as his friends and political associates. In particular, Toland's intimate relationship with the Electress Sophia of Hanover saw him act as a court philosopher, but also as a powerful publicist for the Hanoverian succession. The book argues that he shaped the republican tradition after the Glorious Revolution into a practical and politically viable programme, focused not on destroying the monarchy but on reforming public religion and the Church of England. It also examines how Toland used his social intimacy with a wide circle of men and women (ranging from Prince Eugene of Savoy to Robert Harley) to distribute his ideas in private. The book explores the connections between his erudition and print culture, arguing that his intellectual project was aimed at compromising the authority of Christian ‘knowledge’ as much as the political power of the Church. Overall, it illustrates how Toland's ideas and influence impacted upon English political life between the 1690s and the 1720s.

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Open Access (free)
Natural resources and development – which histories matter?
Mick Moore

History, historians and development policy fact that certain types of natural resource exports (‘point resources’) have generated very high rents (‘excess profits’), that have in turn generated political competition and largely have accrued to people who wield political power in the exporting nations; and (c) the fact that the polities of many of the exporting nations were already fragile for other reasons. Explaining the resource curse1 It is reasonable to be concerned that, when a country begins to export large quantities of phosphates (or coltan, copper, diamonds

in History, historians and development policy
Open Access (free)
Better ‘the Hottentot at the hustings’ than ‘the Hottentot in the wilds with his gun on his shoulder’
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain

Sotho, the Tswana, the Ndebele, the Swazi and the Pedi – and also some small states run by such peoples as the Griqua (the descendants of Afrikaners and Africans, who had gained military and political power by adopting the Whites’ guns and horses). The prolonged serious internecine conflict among the peoples of the interior (a period in the 1820s and 1830s referred to as the mfecane or lifaqane

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Open Access (free)
The predicament of history
Bill Schwarz

colonial rule would signal not merely a transfer of political power, but the renovation of the entire colonial civilisation, from top to bottom. In the decade or so from the middle 1950s to the middle 1960s this dedication to the decolonisation of the culture of the Caribbean moved to the centre of what it was to declare oneself a West Indian. In the writings of the time of C. L. R. James, George Lamming

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
Justin Champion

the political power of the Church, or the role of Christianity in society, the consequences of ecclesiological reform in 1689 were a 4 MUP/Champion_01_Intro 4 27/2/03, 10:09 am Locating John Toland blend of innovation and tradition. In the same breath as allowing a diversity of Protestant worship, the statutory reforms underscored the singular jurisdictional authority of the Church of England. By default these debates about the nature of religion were intimately bound up with questions about the legitimate character of political authority. Despite the

in Republican learning
Open Access (free)
Alison Rowlands

decision-making power in all cases always remained with the council.4 In the sixteenth century Rothenburg was one of the Empire’s middlesized urban settlements, with 5,000–7,000 inhabitants. Its population was dominated by craftsmen and their households, who produced goods for local and regional markets. These craftsmen belonged to guilds which regulated the standards of their particular craft, but they lacked political power within the city. Individual craftsmen might gain admission to the political elite if they made enough money and the right connections, but as a

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany
Open Access (free)
Neil Macmaster

, psychological warfare specialists of the Fifth Bureau, which rose to gain extraordinary levels of political power in the army between late 1956 and early 1960. The Fifth Bureau was inspired by the idea that attempts to win over the Algerian population to the French side could not afford to neglect women, one half of the population. Moreover, good or accurate intelligence – which was regarded as the key to any successful counter-insurgency programme M1822 - MACMASTER TEXT.indd 3 21/7/09 12:16:10 4 Burning the veil – was crucially dependent on building close contacts with

in Burning the veil
Peter D.G. Thomas

,000 voters can be no more than an informed guess, in the absence of both electoral rolls and frequent polls.27 Political power lay with the landed class, whose estates, prestige and other modes of influence created ‘natural’ political interests, on which government could make little impact. Most constituencies were controlled by the squires, the myth of an aristocratic oligarchy of a few great patrons having been destroyed long ago, in 1929, by Sir Lewis Namier, who calculated that in the English boroughs 55 peers influenced the election of only 111 MPs.28 Subsequent

in George III