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’. Having said so much already about politics as a way of introducing the book, we will look at three fundamental terms – politics, power and justice – and provide an outline of the chapters. Three fundamental terms: politics, power and justice There are three fundamental political issues which appear in all the chapters of this book and feature in almost all political discussions and

in Understanding political ideas and movements

relation to the state. It acts as defender or abuser of human rights. It creates national identity. It is the prime structure by which political power is manipulated in a society. Conservatism, liberalism, socialism, fascism and ecologism, as models, analyse power in relation to the state. As political parties they seek state power, to use it to implement political, social and cultural programmes. If unable to achieve control of the

in Understanding political ideas and movements
A guide for A2 politics students
Series: Understandings

In liberal democracies there is a belief that citizens ought to take an active interest in what is happening in the political world. Political debate in modern Western democracies is a complex and often rowdy affair. There are three fundamental political issues: 'politics', 'power' and 'justice', which feature in almost all political discussions and conflicts. The book assesses the degree to which the state and state sovereignty are disappearing in the modern world of 'globalised' politics, economics and culture and new international institutions. The main features of the nation and the problems of defining it are outlined: population, culture, history, language, religion, and race. Different types of democracy and their most important features are discussed. 'Freedom' is usually claimed to be the prime objective of political activity. The book discusses equality of human rights, distributional equality, equality before the law, the claims for group equality on the grounds of race, gender, class. Rights, obligations and citizenship are closely associated. Ideology is the driving force of political discourse. The book also discusses nationalism's growth and development over the last two centuries with particular reference to its main features and assumptions. It outlines the development of conservatism as a political ideology and movement in Britain during the last two centuries. An overview of liberalism, socialism, Marxism, anarchism, and Fascism follows. Environmentalism and feminism are also discussed. Finally, the book talks about how ideological change occurs and stresses the importance of rationality in politics.

Isadora Duncan’s danced revolution

sought in the language in which Duncan operated, in dance. Her revolution occurs within dance itself, not in the relationship between dance and other systems of signification. Their political power is the ability to affirm a new kind of movement, a new kind of subjectivity, while drawing upon and responding to previous inscriptions on the body. Dance for Duncan is a method of enabling new articulations to be seen and heard. It is a way to affirm the third dancer, dancing unknown systems of signification, who trumps not only the first dancer, representing ballet, but

in Dance and politics
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Moving beyond boundaries

Dance has always been a method of self- expression for human beings. This book examines the political power of dance and especially its transgressive potential. Focusing on readings of dance pioneers Isadora Duncan and Martha Graham, Gumboots dancers in the gold mines of South Africa, the One Billion Rising movement using dance to protest against gendered violence, dabkeh in Palestine and dance as protest against human rights abuse in Israel, the Sun Dance within the Native American Crow tribe, the book focuses on the political power of dance and moments in which dance transgresses politics articulated in words. Thus the book seeks ways in which reading political dance as interruption unsettles conceptions of politics and dance.

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. Parliamentary constituencies are of unequal size, most are ‘safe’ seats that remain in the hands of one political party, and the voting system ensures that most MPs and all governments are elected on minorities of the popular vote. Democratic equality does not exist in most modern democracies, according to egalitarians, and will not exist until there is greater devolution of political power to institutions which are closer to the

in Understanding political ideas and movements

normative reasons, there will be a plurality of democratic polities, which will, in foreseeable practice, be territorial – that is, they will take the form of bounded spaces within which political power is exercised over human beings and laws applied to them. In territorial states, the best proxy for subjection is residence. 1 Democratic politics needs continuity over time, and thus depends on a relatively sedentary (but not static) population, or

in Democratic inclusion
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nineteenth century, the development of the political power of the middle classes within capitalist states also refined the concept of the nation. The creation of mass democracies and notions of popular sovereignty during the twentiety century created the notion of nationality being related to citizenship . Nations and national identity, in the eyes of some commentators, are artificial formulations

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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. Anti-democrats were regarded as supporters of out-dated and reactionary institutions and views and the defenders of undeserved privileges of wealth and political power. Rousseau, in The Social Contract (1762), was the most influential of many writers who attacked the concept of absolutist monarchy . He wanted a new society based on reason, free individuals, and a social contract between government and people. The American and French

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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becomes a balance of interests, institutions and, ultimately, political power in society. Thus both chaos and tyranny are avoided. Liberalism has a number of key themes: the individual and his/her rights; an optimistic view of human nature; a belief in progress; a commitment to freedom; limited government; the economy and liberalism; a commitment to internationalism. The individual and his/her rights At the heart of liberalism is the

in Understanding political ideas and movements