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Patrick Callaghan and Penny Bee

everyone – not everyone wants to take part in research and even if they did, the time and cost commitment would be enormous. So instead we work with a manageable group of research volunteers. They provide their data and we use this to estimate the values that would be measured in a population. Research studies, and particularly randomised controlled trials, often use a special calculation called a power calculation to decide how many people we need to recruit to a study. A study must have sufficient power to infer the correct result. The minimum power level which is

in A research handbook for patient and public involvement researchers
Helen Brooks, Penny Bee, and Anne Rogers

of statistical significance and power calculations. In qualitative research, arguments are instead made for commonality or typicality (Fossey et al., 2002). Within the studies included in EQUIP, commonality was inferred by the fact participants were recruited by virtue of having certain characteristics (e.g. service users under the care of a community mental health team). 116 BEE (RESEARCH) PRINT.indd 116 11/05/2018 16:16 Given the interpretative nature of qualitative analysis, credibility refers to the interpretations made about the data (Green and Thorogood

in A research handbook for patient and public involvement researchers
Owen Price and Karina Lovell

clinically significant effect of the intervention. For example, this might be a change on a depression scale that moved a person from severe to moderate depression, or from moderate to mild depression. Once this has been agreed, researchers conduct a statistical test called a power calculation. This calculates the minimal sample size required to detect a significant difference between the treatment and control groups. The final key feature of an RCT yet to be covered is the need for researchers to conduct an intention-to-treat analysis. This refers to the need to include all

in A research handbook for patient and public involvement researchers