Open Access (free)

This book describes the explosion of debt across the global economy and related requirement of political leaders to pursue exponential growth to meet the demands of creditors and investors. It presents a historical account of the modern origins of capitalist debt by looking at how commercial money is produced as debt in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The book identifies the ways in which the control, production, and distribution of money, as interest-bearing debt, are used to discipline populations. It focuses on the histories of the development of the Bank of England and the establishment of permanent national debt with the intensification and expansion of debt, as a "technology of power", under colonialism in a global context. The book investigates the modern origins of debt as a technology of power by focusing on war, the creation of the "national" debt, and the capitalization of the organized force of the state. It addresses the consequences of modern regimes of debt and puts forward proposals of what needs to be done, politically, to reverse the problems generated by debt-based economies. The book utilizes the term "intensification" rather than spread or proliferation to think about both the amplification and spatial expansion of debt as a technology of power during the era of European colonialism and resistance. Finally, it also presents a convincing case for the 99" to use the power of debt to challenge present inequalities and outlines a platform for action suggesting possible alternatives.

Elana Wilson Rowe

2 The power politics of representation Saami poet Nils-​Aslak Valkeapää called for a vision of the Arctic as a horizontal highway of movement and conversation, with its treeless expanses providing opportunity to roam and the long polar nights providing opportunity to talk and listen (1998). This evocative image of a highway of interconnection is a counterpoint to the typical ways in which the Arctic is divided by standard maps and globes, with North–​South political lines transecting the Saami homeland in the European North. Maps, films, poetry and policy

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
Theorising Arctic hierarchies
Elana Wilson Rowe

3 Power positions: theorising Arctic hierarchies International relations scholars of the twentieth century operated primarily with a conception of states’ interrelations as little more than billiard balls bouncing and crashing in trade, war and other forms of encounter. They posited anarchy as the only option in the absence of formal authority at the international level (Milner, 1991). In more recent history, IR scholars have sought to envision the international order as something more than anarchic and explain structured, repeated modes of interaction

in Arctic governance
Felix M. Bivens

19 MA in Participation, power and social change at University of Sussex Felix M. Bivens Context The MA in Participation (MAP) had its first intake of students in 2004. MAP is the product of several years of planning and more years of previous work by the Participation, Power and Social Change (PPSC) team at Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex. The roots of PPSC connect to the highly influential work of Robert Chambers in the field of participatory development. In the 1990s, his books, including Whose Reality Counts? Putting the First

in Knowledge, democracy and action
Open Access (free)
Brad Evans

often hidden in plain sight. Hence, to break the cycle of violence means we have to develop a critique of violence that is adequate to our times and learn to undo the mythical binds that continue to force us to see violence as something which is inevitable, unavoidable and an integral part of the human condition. The purpose of this essay is to offer a number of provocations that challenge ten commonly held ideas about violence – ideas upon which contemporary logics of power and political rule continue to depend. In doing so, it presents a case for rethinking the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Power in cross-border Cooperation

The volume explores a question that sheds light on the contested, but largely cooperative, nature of Arctic governance in the post-Cold War period: How do power relations matter – and how have they mattered – in shaping cross-border cooperation and diplomacy in the Arctic? Through carefully selected case studies – from Russia’s role in the Arctic Council to the diplomacy of indigenous peoples’ organisations – this book seeks to shed light on how power performances are enacted constantly to shore up Arctic cooperation in key ways. The conceptually driven nature of the enquiry makes the book appropriate reading for courses in international relations and political geography, while the carefully selected case studies lend themselves to courses on Arctic politics.

Open Access (free)
Liberal reform and the creation of new conflict economies
Jenny H. Peterson

from military or political elites over key resources which have been used by these actors to consolidate power in an undemocratic and violent manner (contributing to the goal of negative transformation) and to return these resources to private hands, leading to broad socio-economic development (thereby contributing to a wider form of positive transformation). In reality, and as with many policies, the outcome of privatisation is never so predictable and in some cases may actually contribute to the formation or consolidation of economic relationships which it actually

in Building a peace economy?
Current policy options and issues
Jenny H. Peterson

example of this approach is the aerial spraying of coca crops as part of Plan Colombia, a US-sponsored assistance strategy aimed in part at eradicating drug production in Colombia. While this programme can be seen primarily as an attempt by the US to decrease the amount of cocaine flowing into the United States (and the crime associated 15 4062 building a peace economy_2652Prelims 25/11/2013 15:06 Page 16 Building a peace economy? with this trade), it is also considered to be a means by which actors can diminish the power of the drug cartels, known to be linked to

in Building a peace economy?
The nature of the development-security industry
Jenny H. Peterson

political and economic values to which political actors and citizens must comply (Cramer, 2003b; Pugh, Cooper and Turner, 2011). This peacebuilding consensus is based on a number of beliefs related to the pacifying effect of liberal structures. For example, as Cramer notes, economic aspects of the liberal peacebuilding consensus are largely based on the belief that capitalism and free markets ‘tie people up with the relatively benign business of money making, thus diverting them from the more nefarious activities of seeking power and making war’ (Cramer, 2003b: 152

in Building a peace economy?
Learning from the case of Kosovo
Jenny H. Peterson

government’ (Yannis, 2003: 175). Smugglers were also being paid $900 per adult to smuggle Kosovans to safety during the conflict (Cilluffo and Salmoiraghi, 1999: 22). These transnational trading and smuggling networks emerged in order to provide goods and services to the local population, the profits of which were at times converted into individual economic wealth, but were also used to build up and maintain power by political groups in both Serbia and Kosovo. It is worth noting that while problematic in terms of contributing to the criminal economy, some smuggling served

in Building a peace economy?