Whatever the precise nature of the
shift in Britain’s role from a trading to a colonial power in
India, not in doubt was the dramatic increase in demand for knowledge of
the nascent colony. After the decisive battle of Plassey, the various
forms of knowledge production grew exponentially. In 1784 the Asiatic
Society of Bengal was formed. In 1788 James Rennell published Memoir
with ‘Race’ in most detail. He finds ‘the race issue
is too complicated to be dealt with at best-seller, black-and-white
level’, especially after his time in England. He worries that such
‘stories of oppression and humiliation’ with their mandatory
‘clear oppressors and clear oppressed’ may pander to an
audience’s ‘sadistic pleasure’, its ‘vicarious
sense of power’. He
of metropole and colony in the
first place’. 17 For such purposes, I look at the imposition of
hegemony, not by the direct force of a colonizing power, but by the
mimicry of descendants from the constructed British imperial centre.
Hence, Canada as a ‘white settler society’ shapes my
research. The process of European settlement in past empires is now
problematized and un-settled. 18 Conquest
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips, and Shurlee Swain
access to conventional White parliamentary
power – with both men and women enfranchised and Maori men able to
sit in parliament and government – and Aborigines in Australia
probably the least; Indigenous Canadians and South Africans (depending
on the province in which they lived) had very limited voting rights, but
were a very long way from anything approaching true equality.
We should also note that our
Royal Tourists, Colonial Subjects, and the Making of a British World, 1860-1911 examines the ritual space of nineteenth-century royal tours of empire and the diverse array of historical actors who participated in them. The book is a tale of royals who were ambivalent and bored partners in the project of empire; colonial administrators who used royal ceremonies to pursue a multiplicity of projects and interests or to imagine themselves as African chiefs or heirs to the Mughal emperors; local princes and chiefs who were bullied and bruised by the politics of the royal tour, even as some of them used the tour to symbolically appropriate or resist British cultural power; and settlers of European descent and people of colour in the empire who made claims on the rights and responsibilities of imperial citizenship and as co-owners of Britain’s global empire. Royal Tourists, Colonial Subjects, and the Making of a British World suggests that the diverse responses to the royal tours of the nineteenth century demonstrate how a multi-centred British-imperial culture was forged in the empire and was constantly made and remade, appropriated and contested. In this context, subjects of empire provincialized the British Isles, centring the colonies in their political and cultural constructions of empire, Britishness, citizenship, and loyalty.
Missions, the colonial state and constructing a health system in colonial Tanganyika
into an organisation with real power over the policy-making process.
Missions could inform government of their views, but were to be excluded
from access to influence:
Government’s present concern was mainly
with the educational work of the various missions and the need
for its coordination with the State enterprise. The
colonial rule, the Colonial Office was successful in steering policy for industry along lines it saw as desirable until the 1956 elections that brought Eric Williams to power. This success was achieved not by direct instruction by London but through the judicious use of expert advisors who promoted the more liberal road to development favoured by the Colonial Office. Only with the election of Williams did Trinidad embrace a different model, devised by Lewis. Lewis in turn drew upon the Puerto Rican programme for inspiration.
Development planning in
Mughal power. During one part of
the ceremonies, the King and Queen ‘sat on the marble balcony ...
showing themselves to the [thousands of] people’ at Delhi Fort,
the palace of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, in a ceremony proposed by
the King himself. 3
The 1911 Delhi durbar was one of the grandest ritual performances in the
history of the British Empire, a culmination of the royal tours and the
unimpeded expression. That this
transformation in meaning had occurred was due to the determination of
Caribbean intellectuals, broadly conceived, to devise an identity which
was theirs , and which belonged to those whom they represented.
Once independence had been achieved, however, and once new political
circumstances obtained (the impact of the Cuban Revolution; the coming
of Black Power), inherited
research was needed to transform sugar from foodstuff to industrial starting compound. Laboratory investigation was endowed with the power to reverse the long decline of the Caribbean.
This chapter will show how concerns at the Colonial Office around 1940 about the economic future of the British West Indies were expressed as concerns about the future of the sugar industry. While distress was not limited to workers in this industry, and sugar was no longer the principal export of all British Caribbean colonies, it was conditions in this industry that