By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this
volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of
violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities
across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications
of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the
study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical
significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the
myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and
non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the
Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex
than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance.
Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale
violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum,
ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was
privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early
modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent
forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in
activities not officially classed as war.
In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.
Raiding war and globalization in the early modern world
in Algiers, Tunis, and Malta; ambassadorial correspondence
from Istanbul; correspondence and records of the city of Marseille; records of the
Chambre de commerce de Marseille; papers of the admiral des mers de Levant;
correspondence of the Knights of Malta; and other manuscripts.11 Many of these
sources concern southern France in particular, but printedpamphlets, treatises,
and rare books provide additional insights into the dynamics of raiding throughout early modern France.12 Although there is not space here to fully explore all of
these sources, early modern
Violence and the Great Turkish War in the work of Romeyn de
Michel van Duijnen
. György, Schlachtenbilder aus der Zeit der Befreiungsfeldzüge
7 H. van Nierop, The Life of Romeyn de Hooghe 1645–1708: Prints, Pamphlets and Politics in
the Dutch Golden Age (Amsterdam, 2018), p. 193–4.
8 M. Pollak, Cities at War in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, 2010), p. 142.
9 D. Kunzle, From Criminal to Courtier: The Soldier in Netherlandish Art 1550–1672 (Leiden,
2002), p. 503.
10 A selection of De Hooghe’s more well-known works can be found in: J. H. Landwehr,
Romeyn de Hooghe, the Etcher: Contemporary Portrayal of Europe, 1662
onwards, though it is the ‘low
brow’ printed version which disseminated more widely, and found its way to
America, particularly to Pennsylvania, via German emigrants.45 Even within
both variants the contents of different editions varies widely, and from a
detailed analysis of the borrowings, crossovers and complexities of such
manuscripts and printedpamphlets, originals and copies, titles and editions,
I would like to suggest a new method of examining the spell book genre,
their contents and their usage in everyday practice.
Grimoires can be described as being created
Hohendorf liked a variety of impiety – Toland drafted
work on the Gospel of Barnabas, dissertations on Giordano Bruno and the
history of the apocrypha. For men like Harley, Collins and Shaftesbury (as
well as a list of more minor figures) Toland was able to produce a mixture of
learning and prudential political commentary. For Harley he composed a
series of printedpamphlets advancing various political schemes as well as
more private memorials analysing the options prompted by political circumstances. It is clear in some cases that Toland was writing what he thought
migrants to France slipped from the village at
night to put on European clothing before taking the ferry, and reversed
this on their return home, see MacMaster, Colonial Migrants, 73.
36 Captain L. P. Fauque, Stades d’évolution de la cellule familiale musulmane
d’Algérie, 19, a printedpamphlet (restricted) of the General Government,
20 May 1959: copies can be located at SHAT 1H112/3 or CAOM
37 There is a considerable literature on the symbolism and politics of the veil: in
addition to the seminal work of Edward Said, Orientalism, see for example,