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Two contemporary accounts of Martin Luther

This book presents a contemporary, eyewitness account of the life of Martin Luther translated into English. Johannes Cochlaeus (1479–1552) was present in the great hall at the Diet of Worms on April 18, 1521 when Luther made his famous declaration before Emperor Charles V: ‘Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me. Amen’. Afterward, Cochlaeus sought Luther out, met him at his inn, and privately debated with him. Luther wrote of Cochlaeus, ‘may God long preserve this most pious man, born to guard and teach the Gospel of His church, together with His word, Amen’. However, the confrontation left Cochlaeus convinced that Luther was an impious and malevolent man. Over the next twnety-five years, Cochlaeus barely escaped the Peasant's War with his life. He debated with Melanchthon and the reformers of Augsburg. It was Cochlaeus who conducted the authorities to the clandestine printing press in Cologne, where William Tyndale was preparing the first English translation of the New Testament (1525). For an eyewitness account of the Reformation—and the beginnings of the Catholic Counter-Reformation—no other historical document matches the first-hand experience of Cochlaeus. After Luther's death, it was rumoured that demons seized the reformer on his death-bed and dragged him off to Hell. In response to these rumours, Luther's friend and colleague Philip Melanchthon wrote and published a brief encomium of the reformer in 1548. Cochlaeus consequently completed and published his monumental life of Luther in 1549.

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The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Open Access (free)
Elizabeth Vandiver, Ralph Keen, and Thomas D. Frazel

made their first faith void.” ’ 5 Throughout his life Cochlaeus remained an enthusiastic persecutor of heresy wherever he found it. With unconcealed pleasure he chronicles the decline and fall of the short-lived Anabaptist ‘kingdom of a thousand year’ at Münster (1534–5) – from the excesses of its tailor-turned-king, John of Leiden, to the massacre of his followers. Cochlaeus prides himself on directing the authorities to the clandestine printing press in Cologne where William Tyndale was preparing the first English translation of the New Testament in 1525, and

in Luther’s lives
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Beyond the witch trials
Owen Davies and Willem de Blécourt

Stephan Bachter shows, the printing presses were equally instrumental in promoting and disseminating counter-Enlightenment modes of thought. They outline the rise of a ‘magic media market’, characterised by the popularisation of once intellectual occult subject matter, and the publication in German of once scarce manuscript sources. These developments were to have an impact far beyond European shores. Considering that the eighteenth century saw a significant widening of access to written sources of knowledge, it seems rather ironic that historians should be put off

in Beyond the witch trials
Open Access (free)
Adam Fox and Daniel Woolf

‘caused’ (in the sense of providing the necessary and sufficient conditions for) most significant political changes, though the direction of these developments was neither invariably clear nor unambiguously progressive. The advent of papyrus, for example, had a democratizing effect on knowledge in ancient Egypt by spreading information afar and beyond a priestly class. Much later, a further technological advance, the printing press, became (Innis here quotes G. M. Trevelyan) ‘a battering-ram to bring abbeys and castles crashing to the ground’. Innis’s work was filled

in The spoken word
Richard Suggett and Eryn White

laborious process fraught with difficulties. Errors were all too common when printers were unfamiliar with the Welsh alphabet and language. However, with the lapsing of the Licensing Act after 1695, presses were soon to be established in Shrewsbury, which was much more convenient for both 72 Language, literacy and aspects of identity in early modern Wales authors and purchasers within Wales. The first printing press in Wales itself was set up by Isaac Carter at Trefhedyn near Newcastle Emlyn in 1718. Other presses were soon established in market towns, including Swansea

in The spoken word
Justin Champion

slavery went hand in hand, so ‘there never was a nation which lost their religious rights that could long maintain their civil ones’. The endorsement of arbitrary and absolute notions of divine right monarchy from the pulpits throughout the Restoration had tarnished true notions of government. Securing the liberty of the press would ‘in all probability, secure all other liberty’.30 The press was to be a rational engine for the manufacture of public opinion. The adjustments made over the course of Toland’s life in his practical commitment to the printing press as an

in Republican learning
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The growth and measurement of British public education since the early nineteenth century
David Vincent

.E. Forster described this sector as ‘generally speaking, the worst schools, and those least fitted to give a good education to the children of the working classes’.8 That parents persisted in making their own arrangements was a reflection of the ease with which a free market in schooling could flourish. Small groups of children were accommodated in the living space of widows or of workmen seeking an alternative to ill-paid and unreliable manual labour. School primers began to appear not long after the invention of the printing press, and by the early nineteenth century it

in History, historians and development policy
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A male strategy
Soili-Maria Olli

. It is thought that Faust died in the early 1540s, but thanks to the development and spread of the printing press, over the next two centuries the Faust legend spread across Europe and across the 102 Beyond the witch trials social scale. The story was printed for the first time in a cheap Volksbuch (chapbook) by Johann Spiess of Frankfurt in 1587 and the first of many Dutch and English editions appeared soon after. It was the content of the English chapbooks which formed the basis of Christopher Marlowe’s famous play Doctor Faustus, written shortly before his

in Beyond the witch trials
Sabine Doering-Manteuffel and Stephan Bachter

Höllenzwang edition, we find a near identical picture, which this time was supposed to depict Sadock, King Solomon’s high priest. So far, as an element of the unit construction system, the illustration has been combined with different names. The names Habermann and Sadock are further unit construction elements that reappear in other places in new combinations. A number of spell books were named after Dr Habermann, for example Der Goldene Habermann, which we are familiar with from manuscript copies made in Darmstadt around 1800, as well as those from the Scheible printing

in Beyond the witch trials