onward, it was thus permitted to apply for dispensation for cousin marriages. In other words, the pressures exerted and the opposition to the prohibition resulted in some relaxation of the regulatoryframework.
But this did not mean that the national debate on cousin marriages fell silent. The priesthood in particular continued to argue against such alliances. According to the reasoning of the clergy, God's meaning may be ambiguously worded; but the relationships were nevertheless clearly unsound, and for this reason
Prompted by this report, and increased public interest in flight safety following the air crash in Kallang, in the mid-1950s pilots’ hours of work and rest were reviewed by national agencies, and in 1957 a new regulatoryframework was introduced to control pilots’ schedules.
Based on a model of fatigue that had its roots in the late nineteenth century, the concept of balance was implicit in these regulations from the outset. The notion of fatigue was vague and contested throughout the twentieth century. Attempts to find a biological marker for fatigue
In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.
– that an opportunity for change comes about. When single individuals or entire groups challenge social regulatoryframeworks through speech or action, this leads to a questioning of the legitimacy of basic normative values, and the result of that is a renegotiation of the boundaries of the relevant norms. In the process of negotiation that ensues, cultural ideas and ideals which the actors take as their point of departure – and which they perceive to be relevant in the context – are made visible. These negotiations can lead either to the re-establishing of the
During the Middle Ages, this possibility was almost exclusively used by members of the nobility.
In addition, people from the very top of society – both abroad and in Sweden – used the same regulatoryframework in order to wriggle out of an unwanted marriage after the event.
After the Reformation, the right to grant dispensations for marriages between relatives was transferred to the Swedish
prohibited degrees of kinship, the regulatoryframework was challenged; and in the trial that followed, any alternative assessments of the crime that might have existed in society became visible. Using the terminology of Karin Hassan Jansson, one may call this a struggle for the definition of a shared norm, where the defendants, the judges, and any witnesses were negotiating with one another.
An analysis of the judgement-book material entails certain risks that must be borne in mind. The negotiations in the courtroom were not conducted among equals
nonconformist groups questioned the prevailing religious compulsory system. As a result, the regulatoryframeworks of several religious rites that had previously been obligatory, for instance communion and christenings, were loosened.
In 1908, civil marriage was introduced as an alternative to church weddings.
The balance of power between the sexes changed as well. Various reforms boosted women's opportunities to support themselves
A national ethics committee and bioethics during the 1990s
-governmental organization’.57 No politician, tellingly, spoke in
favour of the current ethical and regulatoryframework.
Supporters of a national committee found a high-profile ally
in Mary Warnock, who claimed that public interest in ‘a growing
number of topics’ such as gene therapy and embryo research justified the formation of ‘a permanent royal commission with a rolling
membership’.58 Writing in the British Medical Journal, Warnock
endorsed a national committee that resembled the ‘monitoring body’
her committee had proposed for IVF and embryo experiments. She
argued that it would
towards the regulation of colonial midwifery. The British
government seized upon them as further support for its argument that the
ZMA could function adequately only if it was run and policed by the
Colonial Medical Service. The Central Midwives Board in the UK had been
established in 1902, but during the 1940s it began to extend its
regulatoryframework for the training and conduct of midwives within the
stability, a ‘strong vital energy’,
that the western model, whether American or Soviet, would endanger.
In addition, the liberal agenda took no account of the true nature of
Algerian women whom, it was implied, required the strict regulatoryframework of Koranic law, since she was ‘generally of an impulsive
nature, with a relish for intrigue, machinations, and gossip’, and the
traditional religious authorities most favourable to women had noted,
‘her fickleness, her acid temperament, her extrovert mood swings, her
tendency to insubordination (nushûz), her hastily formed