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Yulia Karpova

glass production. The Moscow artist Vladimir Filatov called for building a relationship of artists with industry on the basis of ‘mutual respect and understanding of [common] interests, aims and needs’. Smirnov, who worked in many different areas of art and design simultaneously, acknowledged glassblowing as the truest embodiment of creativity. He described his cooperative work with a glassblower as ‘the most interesting: this is an exceptional opportunity to directly and naturally enrich art by incorporating the artistry of the glassblower, naïve and free, untouched

in Comradely objects
Open Access (free)
Design and material culture in Soviet Russia, 1960s–80s
Author: Yulia Karpova

The major part of this book project was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 700913.

This book is about two distinct but related professional cultures in late Soviet Russia that were concerned with material objects: industrial design and decorative art. The Russian avant-garde of the 1920s is broadly recognised to have been Russia’s first truly original contribution to world culture. In contrast, Soviet design of the post-war period is often dismissed as hackwork and plagiarism that resulted in a shabby world of commodities. This book identifies the second historical attempt at creating a powerful alternative to capitalist commodities in the Cold War era. It offers a new perspective on the history of Soviet material culture by focusing on the notion of the ‘comradely object’ as an agent of progressive social relations that state-sponsored Soviet design inherited from the avant-garde. It introduces a shared history of domestic objects, handmade as well as machine-made, mass-produced as well as unique, utilitarian as well as challenging the conventional notion of utility. Situated at the intersection of intellectual history, social history and material culture studies, this book elucidates the complexities and contradictions of Soviet design that echoed international tendencies of the late twentieth century. The book is addressed to design historians, art historians, scholars of material culture, historians of Russia and the USSR, as well as museum and gallery curators, artists and designers, and the broader public interested in modern aesthetics, art and design, and/or the legacy of socialist regimes.

Open Access (free)
Tania Anne Woloshyn

when the skin has gradually become well pigmented and chocolate-coloured. 37 Others, including the highly respected British researchers Sir Leonard Hill and Albert Eidinow (NIMR), were particularly aware of the conflicting methods of Reyn and Rollier. They were equally critical of both. Hill and Eidinow faulted the Copenhagen technique for using

in Soaking up the rays
Open Access (free)
Tania Anne Woloshyn

the patient’s body in a light-sensitive state and, implicitly, white. In opposition, other equally well-respected practitioners, such as Britain’s leading heliotherapist Sir Henry Gauvain of the Treloar Hospital for Crippled Children in Hampshire, considered pigmentation vital to the cure. They avoided producing solar erythema in favour of pigmentation through careful, graduated acclimation. In doing so Gauvain followed the

in Soaking up the rays
Yulia Karpova

. While he disagreed with Saltykov on certain points, Kagan also contended that applied art is not illusory by nature and does not represent anything, but rather fulfils concrete practical needs. In this respect, it is akin to architecture. Of the two aspects of architecture and applied art – practical and what Kagan calls ‘ideological-aesthetic’ – the former is more important. Artistic content and aesthetic form – the elements fulfilling ideological function – should be subordinated and applied to the practical function, Kagan argued. Thus, he concluded, architecture

in Comradely objects
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

the only member of my father’s family who went back to Germany after the war. Marlyse completed medical school in Toulouse, and after some years in Strasbourg moved to the United States, where Aliens [ 59 ] [ 60 ] she worked as an anaesthetist until her retirement. For more than twenty years after that, she worked as a highly respected docent at the Freer and Sackler Galleries in Washington, DC. Julie and Emma returned to Thionville after the war, which is where I met them in 1953 when I was ten years old. Julie died in the early 1970s, and Emma a few years

in Austerity baby
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

about the threatened loss of innocence’. She said something like this: ‘I am enjoying your course very much. But it is disturbing me. Let me tell you about my background. I come from [she named a medium-sized town twenty or thirty miles south]. My father is a lawyer; my mother stays home but does a great many good works in the community. So does my father. They are good people and greatly respected. They are loving parents to me and my brothers. We have a pleasant life. In summer we have barbecues with the family, the neighbours, members of our church. In winter we

in Austerity baby
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

was fortunate enough not to have to embark on those most difficult and incapacitating treatments, and so there was no need to mobilise imaginary weaponry to destroy the invader. My totally benign view of my malignancy therefore persisted, though, needless to say, not to the extent of telling my doctor that I didn’t want surgery. I find, in fact, that I am not unique in harbouring a kind of affection or respect for my cancer. Catherine Arthur, diagnosed with the breast cancer from which she eventually died, produced a series of ‘cancer drawings’ as a response to the

in Austerity baby
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

allow herself to be tyrannized: she can bring the child up in such a way that he neither cries nor disturbs her. At last she can make sure that she receives consideration and respect. The extremes of what Miller calls ‘grandiosity and depression’ which often characterise such patients, with the consequent risk of the collapse of self-esteem, are not my own experience. But what rings true is the compulsion to succeed, to do well, to find ways to sue for approval, perhaps in place of the kind of acceptance – independent of any achievements – that this kind of damaged

in Austerity baby
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

of her son James Averell, who died of cholera in 1904, at the age of twenty-six. The son of her second marriage, James Sibley Watson Jr, doctor, publisher, avantgarde film-maker, who died in 1982, spent most of his life in Rochester, after studies at Harvard, a short residency in Chicago and a number of years in New York, where he pursued his medical studies at New York University. In 1919 he took over, with Scofield Thayer, the publication and editing of the respected New York-based literary journal The Dial. The journal ceased publication in 1929, but it had

in Austerity baby