Alcohol health education campaigns in England
Alex Mold

local health education campaigns, an expert committee report on alcohol prevention and a public consultation exercise on alcohol, the chapter highlights tensions between different approaches to dealing with drink. Health education efforts were intended to encourage individuals to moderate their alcohol consumption: to behave responsibly by becoming ‘sensible drinkers’. Yet, at the same time, considerable scepticism was expressed (even by those involved in the campaigns) about the ability of health education to change behaviour. Other approaches, such as increasing the

in Balancing the self
Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Feijoo versus the ‘falsely possessed’ in eighteenth-century Spain
María Tausiet

how and with what instrument to do so’:50 Let the exorcist when he comes across one of these people, make him clean out his mouth and spit out all its contents, and he will see, unless it is the devil he spits out, no longer can he imitate birdsong. It is true there are exorcists who are so fanciful that seeing them spit out a bit of leek or cabbage leaf, or some herb or other . . . will swear that it is the Devil transformed into what came out of the mouth.51 These and other investigations confirmed the monk in his scepticism 52 Beyond the witch trials

in Beyond the witch trials
Open Access (free)
Nico Randeraad

-time member of the board of the Statistical Society of London, scornfully referred to the congresses as ‘international picnics’ which had accomplished next to nothing in twenty years.1 British scepticism about unity in Europe is nothing new. Anyone who has followed the debate about the future of the European Union will have seen many parallels between contemporary events and the dealings of the international statistical congresses. A Eurosceptic would have written off Quetelet’s international statistics project as an obvious failure, and he would be inclined to regard the

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Alison Rowlands

legal procedure in the handling of witch-trials, a factor which was also of paramount importance in explaining the relative paucity of witch-trials in other parts of Germany.3 Torture was used with restraint and often not at all in the Rothenburg trials, thus ensuring that all accused (as opposed to self-confessed) witches were able to maintain their denials of guilt. Serious legal action was never taken against those individuals accused by self-confessed witches of having been seen at witches’ dances. This was due partly to an elite scepticism about the reality

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany
Open Access (free)
George Campbell Gosling

scepticism and sometimes, as in Bristol, outright opposition of house committees to the admission of private patients is in stark contrast to the US case where Charles Rosenberg and Paul Starr have both identified the surgical staffs as driving the change, bringing their private patients to the hospital where it was more efficient and profitable to treat them. 9 There is little reason to think the same logic would not apply across the Atlantic. Yet the separation

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48
S.J. Barnett

, Toland, Tindal, Collins (listed as a freethinker), Erasmus Darwin, Diderot, Thomas Paine and Alberto Radicati – across the whole of Europe in the whole of the century. 27 It hardly needs pointing out that this figure does not, no matter how much we might qualify the term, constitute grounds for the identification of a movement, even an English one consisting of relatively ‘small numbers’ as Clark has put it in his English Society 1688–1832 (1985).28 It is hardly surprising, therefore, that one commentator has ventured that scepticism had less support from the 1690s to

in The Enlightenment and religion
The discourse of spirits in Enlightenment Bristol
Jonathan Barry

, reflecting on Mr G——s’ family and insinuating that the justices of the country ought to punish them for that which is really an affliction permitted of God’. A number of themes are being developed here, including the fear, widespread at this time, that the press could be abused to harm private reputations,15 together with the associated denigration of coffee-house debating and Walpolean Whiggery (both implied by ‘Robbin-hood’) as centres of a shallow public opinion based on destructive scepticism.16 The believers had begun to develop their public case. We do not know who

in Beyond the witch trials
The cultural construction of opposition to immunisation in India
Niels Brimnes

again Chief Minister of Madras, a position he resigned in 1954 after falling out with the dominant faction of the Congress Party in Madras. 64 Rajagopalachari was also a close friend of Raman and shared his scepticism towards BCG vaccination. From 1952 he communicated his views on BCG in letters to the Union Minister of Health and ardent supporter of BCG, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur. 65 With his resignation the Indian authorities and their UN

in The politics of vaccination
Elite beliefs about witchcraft and magic
Alison Rowlands

delusion, and legal caution Most elite scepticism was expressed in the records of witchcraft cases from Rothenburg about witches’ sabbats and the flights to them. The jurists and clerics who commented on these issues tended to believe that sabbats did not take place in reality, but that self-confessed witches and other people who claimed to have seen witches’ gatherings had been deluded by the devil into imagining that they had done so. This view was first recorded by jurist Cunradt 56 WITCHCRAFT NARRATIVES IN GERMANY Thalhaimer in 1582, when he suggested that

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany