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Analysing the linkages and exploring possibilities for improving health and wellbeing
Warren Smit

(Herforth and Ahmed, 2015 ; Turner et al., 2017 ). Understanding the food environments of African cities is important because there are high levels of food insecurity in African cities, driven by high levels of poverty and income variability (Battersby and Watson, 2018 ), and interventions in urban food environments can potentially contribute to improving health outcomes. Food security can be defined as people’s ‘physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy

in Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city
Open Access (free)
The bridge, the fund and insurance in Dar es Salaam
Irmelin Joelsson

private insurance schemes, nor with the word for social security, hifadhi ya jamii , connoting large-scale welfare programmes. The way in which ‘insurance’ surfaces is rather through a series of practices and manifestations, as a set of skills and assets that often, but not always, include networking, speculation, building (and burning) bridges, hedging and hinging, plotting and scheming, making investments and sometimes withdrawing from those investments. As such, ‘insurance’ is a form of infrastructure that draws social and material life together in order to hedge

in African cities and collaborative futures
Open Access (free)
Urban presence and uncertain futures in African cities
Michael Keith and Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos

offers full ownership of the upgrading and tenure security. The measurement of successful policies from state and community perspectives deserves greater attention. The question informing Henrik Ernstson et al.'s piece ( Chapter 5 ) is ‘who benefits from reframing waste as a resource, and in what ways?’ The authors examine how green technology and livelihoods working in and with waste can antagonise in the process of being transformed. What is ecologically and technologically sensible is not always socially inclusive, and the politics of waste needs

in African cities and collaborative futures
Open Access (free)
Unheard voices and invisible agency
Louise Amoore

inequalities of restructuring through an assumption that flexible forms of work and employment are compatible with human security. Indeed it is claimed that a failure to deregulate labour markets and seize the opportunities of new forms of work will result in a loss of security through increased Amoore_Global_07_Ch6 144 6/19/02, 1:50 PM Globalisation at work 145 unemployment and diminished competitiveness (OECD, 1997; World Bank, 1995). Where it is acknowledged that there may be tensions between flexibility and security, the problem is presented in terms of ‘striking

in Globalisation contested
The restructuring of work in Germany
Louise Amoore

‘inescapable process’ (Felhölter and Noppe, 2000: 241). Much of the text can be read as a direct challenge to prevailing German institutions and practices, pledging to ‘accommodate the growing demands for flexibility’ and to ‘encourage employers to offer “entry” Amoore_Global_05_Ch4 95 6/19/02, 12:22 PM Globalisation contested 96 jobs to the labour market by lowering the burden of tax and social security contributions on low-paid jobs’ (Blair and Schröder, 1999: 7). The ‘Zukunftsprogramm 2000’ (Programme for the Future, 2000), and the ‘Steuerreform 2000’ (Tax reform

in Globalisation contested
Louise Amoore

benefit of particular groups. The new IPE, by contrast, claims to reflect critically on the production of knowledge about the world and on their role in that production. In a world described as globalising, new and critical IPE scholars would need also, then, to reflect on their own relationships to, and experiences of globalisation (see MacLean, 2000). The third broad claim made by the new IPE scholars is that their IPE is a more inclusive and ‘open’ field of inquiry. Founded upon a rejection of the privileging of issues of trade and security by the orthodoxy, the

in Globalisation contested
Open Access (free)
Tuur Driesser

project, it takes a step back from that all-encompassing prison-house of language 226 (In)formalising to return some sense of ontological security to the territory. This is cartography as what Kurgan (2013: 34–36) calls a ‘para-empirical’ analysis: an ‘effort at once to reclaim a sense of reality, and not to imagine that this requires doing away with representations, narratives, and images’. Acknowledging the inherently abstracting qualities of representation, it re-evaluates the relationship of the map to the territory as one that is a representation, but a

in Time for mapping
Open Access (free)
Learning from communities in informal settlements in Durban, South Africa
Maria Christina Georgiadou and Claudia Loggia

participation derives from self-help activities and refers to grassroots planning processes where the local populations themselves decide the future of their own settlement (Lizarralde and Massyn, 2008 ). In reality, however, community participation often remains ‘formal, legalised and politicised’ (Jordhus-Lier and de Wet, 2013 : 2) . In informal settlements, key conceptual and practical challenges hinder active community participation. Residents value nine factors in informal settlements: comfort, cost, environment, facilities, local economy, safety, security, social

in African cities and collaborative futures
Open Access (free)
City DNA, public health and a new urban imaginary
Michael Keith and Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos

lens of ‘development’. Some motifs run through the past and return in histories of the present city across the globe. For example, in this volume’s chapter on food security, the rational push towards land-use zoning and the creative responses of the informal (Smit) are partly structured by appeals to good governance. And while effective urban planning and management undoubtedly play a central role, the appeals to rationalise the city have been problematic throughout the history of the urban. The rational city is an object that sits on the horizon of the urban

in Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city
Transnational reflections from Brazilians in London and Maré, Rio de Janeiro
Cathy McIlwaine, Miriam Krenzinger, Yara Evans, and Eliana Sousa Silva

spaces, more by men and boys. Gendered institutional violence also manifests itself in the public domain in insidious ways. In Maré, it was explicitly linked with public insecurity. On one hand, the various armed actors in the community perpetrated VAWG, as noted by Luana with reference to the police. Yet other actors such as gang members and drug dealers also committed violence, sometimes as aggression and a further exercise of their territorial power, and at other times as a form of ‘protection’ in the absence of state security forces willing to support women

in Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city