founded and was the heiress to the lands alienated.78
There are examples where a daughter, possibly unmarried, witnessed as part of a sibling family group: Rohais, Gilbert, Walter and
Baldwin, the sons and daughters of Alice, the wife of Gilbert fitz Richard
de Clare, witnessed a charter granted by Alice 1136–38.79 When c. 1123
Walter de Gloucester gave his nephew Little Hereford in fee, he compensated his daughter-in-law Sibyl through an exchange of one manor for
another, since the land was of her dower. The witness list has fourteen
male witnesses as
limited. Obviously, a particular individual will be most similar to their siblings and their parents when compared against more distant relatives, and more different still to unrelated individuals. In the examples discussed here there were evident patterns in the distribution of height data. These patterns were not evident by examining the type of burial, such as a weapon grave, nor were they evident in the location of burials in a particular plot. They were visible through a combination of the two types of data. For example, weapon graves within a particular plot or
artificiality of a too-strict demarcation of genre lines. Common topoi are fidelity to a vow, miraculous
healing, angelic voices, wandering, disguise and poverty, and ability to
revive the dead. Though these appear in many legends paired or not,
burial in the same grave (as in Amis) is normally limited to paired saints
and is usual for them. Nearly all the paired saints in the Golden Legend
and in Butler’s Patron Saints are buried together, whether as friends,
siblings or spouses. Occasionally they are buried together even when
the two saints were neither friends nor martyred
, but solely through the sibling they had wrongheadedly killed.
Pointed circumlocutions like these open cracks in the frame surrounding the immediate action of the story, letting past and future in; they are condensed allusions to a legend everyone knew. Taken innocently, the epithet suhtergefæderan , ‘brother's son, father's brother’, describes an everyday kinship relation; read suspiciously, it is a mocking reminder of a particular family's disintegration.
When a few lines later Wealhtheow
for adultery but omitted incest (Oliver, 2002 ), whereas the seventh-century canons of Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, had provision for dealing with homosexuality, incest, sex between siblings and mother–child incest (Gravdal, 1995 ; Frantzen, 2008 ). Strikingly, these two sources illustrate a difference in how household practice collided with an emerging Christian morality.
One aspect of marriage that was discussed in detail was the breakdown of marriage. Æthelbert’s Law devoted a few clauses to dealing with the inheritance of a wife (Oliver, 2002 : 79