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James Paz

, Christianity was organised in ways that were local but nevertheless replicable anywhere: In effect, early medieval Christianity was neither centralized nor systematized. Not a single, uniform cultural package to be adopted or rejected as an entity, it comprised a repertoire of beliefs, social practices, and organizational forms that could be adopted and adapted piecemeal. Thus Christianity jumped from one cultural and political context to another, repeatedly mutating and reconstituting itself in ways that preserved its core features. Differently put, a religion with an

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture
Open Access (free)
Marianne Moore
David Herd

spirit of the gift. In gift exchange no symbol of worth need be detached from the body of the gift as it is given away. Cash exchange, on the other hand, depends upon the abstraction of symbols of value from the substances of value.4 ‘Cash exchange,’ by this way of thinking, and as Hyde formulates it, ‘is to gift exchange what reason is to enthusiasm.’ Plunging us back into the postKantian landscape of Walden Pond, Hyde’s analogy between gift economics and religious enthusiasm has the intention of showing how things can be made more available, how there are social

in Enthusiast!
Sukanta Chaudhuri

Pastoral Poetry of the English Renaissance contains the text of the poems with brief headnotes giving date, source and other basic information, and footnotes with full annotation.

in Pastoral poetry of the English Renaissance
Open Access (free)
What lovers want
Arlyn Diamond

their honour, and the law and social practice enabled them to do so in a way we would find intolerable.25 Degrevant’s actions are never directly critiqued. As Philippa Maddern says, ‘the violent and destructive activities of fifteenth-century knights were thus surrounded by so great a cloud of laudatory adjectives – worthy, worshipful, manly, doughty, invincible, fierce – that no disapproval could touch them’.26 What makes Degrevant’s role as landholder different from his role as crusader is that the earl is not a pagan, a distant enemy, a usurper – he is a neighbour

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
Magic, witchcraft and Church in early eighteenth-century Capua
Augusto Ferraiuolo

became not an abstract norm but a diffused social practice, properly recorded and checked. [Quibis habitis fuit detto Thomas iniuctum silentium cum iuramento er mandatu, ut suprascripta denunciationem propria manu subscribat et confirmat, per propria manu subscribit et confirmavit. Io Thomas de Jordano ho deposto ut sopra di manu propria. Suprascripta denunciatio fecit per me D. Francesco Marca, Vicario Curati, Collegiata et Parochialis Eccellentissimis Santi Michaelis Archangeli recepta et scripta ex commissione Vicariis Capua et subscripta et firmata propria manu

in Beyond the witch trials
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde and John Lydgate’s Troy Book
Heather Blatt

medieval literacy practices: hearing the text, as well as apprehending it with the eye, are both modes of reading. It does mean, however, that members of Lydgate’s anticipated audience may not have possessed the writing skills that enabled them to follow through with the provision of corrections. Corrections may then have been enacted more by the most Corrective reading 41 s­ ophisticated and learned of readers, such as scribes, instead. Yet the ‘see or here’ construction, in particular, emphasizes corrective reading as a social practice, in which participation

in Participatory reading in late-medieval England
Open Access (free)
Theory and Spenserian practice
Rachel E. Hile

indirect clues: the audience will be more able to make these cognitive leaps if author and audience share extensive background knowledge. This way of thinking about satire as a social practice draws from and adds nuance to the work of numerous critics who have considered the social dimension of satire. Fredric Bogel describes satire’s social function as exclusion: creating and policing boundaries between the in-group and the outsider (Bogel, Difference Satire Makes). George A. Test explains the multiplicity of satirical forms as deriving from the limitless possibilities

in Spenserian satire