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Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

’ War (1618–48) and the wars of religion. Westphalia established the key principle of modern statehood: sovereignty . sovereignty The distinguishing characteristic of the state. Sovereignty is the right to have absolute and unlimited power, either legal or political, within the territory of a state. After around 1500, European expansion

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Simon Mabon

9 1 The politics of sovereignty and space1 Politics, for the Arab philosopher Khaldun, concerns ‘the administration of home or city in accordance with ethical and philosophical requirements, for the purpose of directing the mass toward a behaviour that will result in the preservation and permanence of the (human) species’.2 This quest for survival, at the heart of Khaldun’s understanding of politics, raises a number of fundamental questions about space, law, security and ultimately survival, which remain pertinent today. The questions emerging from Khaldun

in Houses built on sand
A guide for A2 politics students
Series: Understandings
Authors: Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

In liberal democracies there is a belief that citizens ought to take an active interest in what is happening in the political world. Political debate in modern Western democracies is a complex and often rowdy affair. There are three fundamental political issues: 'politics', 'power' and 'justice', which feature in almost all political discussions and conflicts. The book assesses the degree to which the state and state sovereignty are disappearing in the modern world of 'globalised' politics, economics and culture and new international institutions. The main features of the nation and the problems of defining it are outlined: population, culture, history, language, religion, and race. Different types of democracy and their most important features are discussed. 'Freedom' is usually claimed to be the prime objective of political activity. The book discusses equality of human rights, distributional equality, equality before the law, the claims for group equality on the grounds of race, gender, class. Rights, obligations and citizenship are closely associated. Ideology is the driving force of political discourse. The book also discusses nationalism's growth and development over the last two centuries with particular reference to its main features and assumptions. It outlines the development of conservatism as a political ideology and movement in Britain during the last two centuries. An overview of liberalism, socialism, Marxism, anarchism, and Fascism follows. Environmentalism and feminism are also discussed. Finally, the book talks about how ideological change occurs and stresses the importance of rationality in politics.

Current policy options and issues
Jenny H. Peterson

Mexico’s battle against the drug trade, Lindau notes that the government’s militarised strategy ‘increases the power of the least-transparent, least-accountable portions of the regime’ (2011: 177–178). When militarisation is perceived to have been chosen due to external pressure from the guiding actors within the DSI, there are also concerns regarding state sovereignty and the legitimacy of governments. If the use of the military is largely seen as appeasing powerful international actors, as opposed to a strategy chosen by the relevant national leadership and their

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
Protecting borders, confirming statehood and transforming economies?
Jenny H. Peterson

security threats, customs policies around the world emerge as key sites for the production of new criteria of statehood and new forms of sovereignty. Necessary to the state, these standards are neither developed nor controlled by national governments but involve the interventions of two international institutions: the World Trade Organization and the less well-known World Customs Organization. (2006: 243) Customs reform in Kosovo appears as a prime example of Chaflin’s description. Both the UN and new Kosovo service have been created and managed by representatives of

in Building a peace economy?
Managing the criminal facets of war economies
Jenny H. Peterson

:06 Page 93 Strengthening the rule of law reforms, and security sector reforms in particular, are now often characterised as development issues, as opposed to security or politically motivated initiatives. The normative impetus and apparently altruistic motivation on which the development industry rests has granted it greater legitimacy to enact reform in areas so closely associated with a state’s sovereignty. Despite this portrayal, these developmental reforms are used as both a carrot and a stick by international bodies as they aim to create liberal democracies in

in Building a peace economy?
Learning from the case of Kosovo
Jenny H. Peterson

(ICG,1999c; interview with international staff, 2006). The bombardment ended on 10 June after a negotiated withdrawal of Serbian forces from the territory. UN Security Council Resolution 1244 left a United Nations administration (the United Nations Mission in Kosovo – UNMIK) in control of Kosovo pending the resolution of final status. Over 42,000 NATO troops formed a peacekeeping force (KFOR). Serbia, de jure, retained its sovereignty over the territory and thus, technically, Kosovo remained part of the Serbian state. The growth of Kosovo’s war economy Beginning with

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
Liberal reform and the creation of new conflict economies
Jenny H. Peterson

reasons for their actions, be they an attempt at diplomacy or evidence of risk aversion, trying to be even-handed and avoid fundamental political disagreements has created a privatisation scheme with which neither side is satisfied. The goals of the DSI have been to privatise in a way which allows for economic development in Kosovo, satisfies the call for justice by Albanians and does not infringe ‘too much’ on the sovereignty of Serbia. All this has been attempted while trying to avoid the larger issue of status. The effect of this is the creation and implementation of

in Building a peace economy?
DSI approaches and behaviours
Jenny H. Peterson

casting judgements are perhaps not well placed to make such claims given their own contributions to these economies. Furthermore, it is unfair and unrealistic to expect domestic institutions and less powerful international operational actors to be responsible for the transformation of political-economic structures that have in part been created and sustained by powerful foreign actors. This is especially relevant when the ability to transform war economies becomes a condition for sovereignty or acceptance into international institutions and communities. In this sense

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

important in a world whose rules they did not write, allege that human rights and humanitarianism represent the soft-power version of Western modernity, another vector for the transmission of liberal-capitalist values and interests that threatens their hold on national power and resources. China, with its muscular conception of sovereignty and its no-questions-asked relationship with other authoritarian states, leads the way. These non-Western states can hardly be blamed for their scepticism given the degree to which humanitarians often attend crises

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs